5 Ways to Increase Soil Fertility

5 Ways to Increase Soil Fertility

Ways to Increase soil fertility: Soil fertility is the state of soil which determines plant growth. Although it is the inherent capacity of soil to supply available nutrients to plants, we can add some other sources of nutrients to cope with the problem of less fertile soil.

Also read: Organic nutrients source for plants

(1). Vermicompost
(2). Farm Yard Manure
(3). Green manure
(4). River bed soil
(5). City residues

(1). Vermicompost

Vermicompost is one of the most important organic manure. It is very easy to prepare. This is prepared with the help of a species of earth worm (Esenia fetida). This species of earthworm produces two types of organic matters, e.g., liquid organic matter or urigo, and compact organic manure or vermicompost.

(Also read: Production of vermicompost in vermibeds)

Composition of vermicompost

pH value6.5 to 7.2
Organic carbon25 to 30%
Nitrogen0.5 to 3%
Phosphorus0.8 to 2%
Potash0.6 to 0.8%
Carbon – nitrogen ratio16:1
Calcium8 to 10%
Humus6 to 8%
Water holding capacity100 to 150%
Microbes10^10 per gram vermicompost

Importance and the impact of vermicompost on soil and plants.

Physical condition of the soil

Black soil

Problem: Cracking is a common problem in black soil during the dry season. The soil becomes hard, compressed, and due to this the soil has less shearing strength.

Solution: Add 20 – 25 tonnes of vermicompost in one hectare of land.

Impact: Soil will become light. There will be more aeration.

Sandy soil

Problem: Sandy soil are very less or no fertile soil. It is very necessary to add some sources of nutrients to support commercial crop production.

Solution: Add a huge amount of vermicompost in per hectare of land.

Impact: Land will become more productive. There will be more aeration. The water holding capacity of sandy soil will increase.

Compact soil

Problem: Compactness is the physical condition of soil. Compact soil restricts the growth and the further development of plant roots, and it results in poor growth and development of a plant.

Solution: Add 20 – 25 tonnes of vermicompost in one hectare of land.

Impact: The compact soil becomes light with the addition of vermicompost, which promotes the growth and development of plant roots in a very effective manner.

(2). Farm Yard Manure

Farm yard manure is an organic manure. It is a well known compost, which has high bulk matters. Farm yard manure is the combination of cow dung, agricultural waste, and other organic matters.

Composition of farm yard manure

Carbon32 – 38%
Nitrogen1.5 – 2%
Phosphorus0.5 – 1%
Potash1 – 1.5%
Dry matter31%
Carbon nitrogen16.73%

Importance and impact of farm yard manure on soil and plants

Black soil


  • Hard soil (dry season).
  • Less fertile.
  • Compact soil (dry season).
  • Less aeration.

Solution: Add 25 – 30 tonnes farm yard manure in one hectare of land.

Impact on soil and plants:

  • Soil becomes light.
  • Excellent root development.
  • Good soil aeration.

Barren land


  • Land is unproductive according to the land capability classification.
  • Soil becomes very hard due to the less of vegetation.
  • Microbial activity is also less.

Solution: Add 75 – 100 tonnes of farm yard manure in one hectare of land.

Impact on soil and plant

  • Land become productive.
  • Increase in microbial activities.
  • The water holding capacity of soil increases.

Soil erosion: We all know that the soil erosion is a major problem in barren lands. There are two types of major soil erosion, first is soil erosion by rain, and second is soil erosion by wind. The addition of farm yard manure reduces it effectively.

Also read: Source of plant nutrients

(3). Green manure

Green manure is any organic manure which is prepared from the vegetative parts of leafy plants. Sesbania, sunhemp, dhaincha, pillipesara, clusterbeans etc., are the excellent green manure plants.

Importance of green manure

Vegetable farming land

Rice growing land

Problem: Being cereal and a non-leguminous crop, the rice plants use much of soil nitrogen and other nutrients from the field.

Solution: Use sesbania as green manure crop. It is locally available as weed.

Wheat growing land

Problem: Wheat is a non-leguminous field crop. It exhaust most of the N, P and K from the soil. Regular wheat growing in the same land causes this problem.

Solution: Use different plants as green manure crop.

(4). River bed soil

River bed soils are alluvial soil. These are very fertile. They don’t need external support due to the organic deposits by river itself.


Vegetable farms: This soil is a very good option for the correction of Vegetables farm land.

Plant nurseries: Use these soil in your plant nurseries as soil media.

(5). City residues

Collect chemical free city residues.

Plant nutrients


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