Bacterial Poultry Diseases: Symptoms and Management

Major bacterial poultry diseases

Poultry, e.g., hen, duck, quail, especially hens are severely affected by the major avian diseases. We will know about the 4 major bacterial poultry diseases, their symptoms and, control and management practices.

List of poultry diseases caused by bacteria:

(1). Infectious coryza.
(2). C. R. D.
(3). Fowl colera.
(4). Pullorum disease.

(1). Infectious coryza
(2). C. R. D. or Chronic Respiratory Disease
(3). Fowl cholera
(4). Salmonella
(5). Keel disease
(6). Fowl typhoid
(7). Botulism
(8). Quail disease
(9). Fowl tuberculosis
(10). Spirokitosis or spirochaetosis
(11). Navel disease

Also read: Basic principles of poultry farming

(1). Infectious coryza

1.1: Introduction

(I). It is infectious.
(II). It is a viral disease.
(III). Young chicks are susceptible.
(IV). It is more dangerous than ranikhet.
(V). Death rate is 50%.

1.2: Cause of Infectious coryza

1.2.1: Biological reason

  • Hemophilus gallinarum.

1.2.2: Supportive factors

  • Change in climate.
  • Moisture in poultry house.
  • Deficiency of vitamin ‘A’.
  • Round worms.
  • Food contamination.

1.3: Incubation period

  • It is 24 to 48 hours.

1.4: Symptoms

  • Chicks don’t pick grain.
  • Nose is runny.
  • Eyes are runny.
  • Mouth is watery.
  • Mud like yellow pus around the eyes.
  • Eyes seem to popped up.
  • Coughing.
  • Egg laying capacity decreases.
  • Blister inside the mouth.

1.4: Management of infectious coryza

  • Tetracycline.
  • Terramycin.
  • Sulmet.
  • Sulfadimidine.
  • Clear the face of chicks.

Also read: How to get success in poultry farming?

(2). C. R. D. or Chronic Respiratory Disease

2.1: Introduction

(I). It is an infectious respiratory disease.
(II). It affects 4-8 weeks old chicks.
(III). Egg laying capacity decreases up to 30%.

2.2: Cause of the disease

2.2.1: Biological reason

  • It is mycoplasma.

2.2.2: Supportive factors

  • Cold climate favors it.
  • Poor food.
  • Worms.
  • Deficiency of vitamin ‘A’.
  • Air pollution.
  • Moisture in poultry house.
  • Sudden changes in climate.

2.3: Incubation period:

  • It is 11-18 days.

2.4: Symptoms of the disease

  • ‘Gudgud’ like sound during respiration.
  • Sneezing is more during the night.
  • Birds wave their head.
  • They feel stress.
  • Production of egg is low.
  • Presence of a thick yellow matter on the back of neck.
  • Keel bone is clearly visible.

2.5: Management of the disease

  • Use antibiotics.
  • Give sulfa medicines.
  • Use terramycin.

Also read: Best poultry farming book Hindi

(3). Fowl cholera

3.1: Introduction

(I). It is infectious.
(II). Apart from hen, it also affects duck, turkey, swan, etc.
(III). It affects 1-2 years old hens during the rainy season.

3.2: Cause of the disease

3.2.1: Biological reason

  • Pasteurella aviseptica.

3.2.2: Supportive factors

  • Moisture in poultry house.
  • Imbalance poultry feed.

3.3: Incubation period

  • It is 2 hours to days.

3.4: Symptoms of the disease

3.4.1: Virulent form

  • Sudden appearance.
  • Death of up to 90% of hens.
  • Heavy weight hens are more susceptible.
  • Birds are more thirsty.
  • Body temperature is 110°C-111°C.
  • Hens stop laying eggs.
  • Green yellow diarrhoea.

3.4.2: Chronic form

(I). Swelling of comb and mouth.
(II). Swelling of joints.
(III). Presence of yellow matters on eyes.

3.5: Medication

  • Sulmet.
  • Tetracycline.
  • Ampicillin.

Also read: Backyard poultry farming scheme

(4). Salmonella

4.1: Introduction

(I). It is a highly contagious disease.
(II). It is a curse for the commercial poultry industry.
(III). It is a disease of layers.
(IV). Disease spreads through eggs.
(V). Death rate is 50-100%.

4.2: Cause of the disease

  • Salmonella pullorum.
  • It is a gram negative bacteria.

4.3: Incubation period

  • It is 5-10 days.

4.3: Symptoms of the disease

  • Sudden death in chicks without showing any major symptom.
  • Chicks are thirsty.
  • No feeding by chicks.
  • Afra diseae like swelling in abdomen.
  • Bent neck.
  • Pneumonia is common.

4.5: Medication

  • Oxytetracycline.
  • Terramycin.
  • Sulfa medicines.

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(5). Keel disease

5.1: Introduction

  • It is similar to bacillary white diarrhoea.
  • It is very common in duck.

5.2: Cause

5.3: Symptoms

  • Loss of hunger.
  • More thirst.
  • Ducks look sleepy.
  • Sudden death.

5.4: Similar to bacillary white diarrhoea.

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(6). Fowl typhoid

6.1: Introduction

  • It is an infectious disease.

6.2: Cause

  • Pasteurella multocida.

6.3: Symptoms of the disease

  • Very little or no hunger.
  • Dropping of wings.
  • Hiding of the birds.
  • Green yellow diarrhoea.
  • Increase in the size of liver.
  • Small knots on liver.

6.4: Medication

  • Tetracycline.
  • Terramycin.

(7). Botulism

7.1: Introduction

(I). It is paralysis of neck.
(II). It is known as limber neck.
(III). It may take a form of out break.

7.2: Cause

  • Clostridium botulinum type C.
  • It produces toxic substance.

7.3: Symptoms of the disease

(I). Severe weakness.
(II). Dropping of wings.
(III). Dropping of head towards land.
(IV). Twisted neck.
(V). Paralysis.

7.4: Medication

  • Botulism antitoxin.

(8). Quail disease

8.1: Introduction

(I). It is also known as ulcerative enteritis.
(II). Death rate is 10%.

8.2: Cause of the disease

  • Clastridium colinum.

8.3: Symptoms of the disease

  • Brown or yellowish brown watery excrete that turn white on standing.
  • Droopy posture.
  • Emaciation.
  • Listless.

8.4: Medication

  • Streptomycin.
  • Neomycin.

(9). Fowl tuberculosis

9.1: Introduction

(I). It is weakness disease of poultry.
(II). It is common in duck, pigeon, turkey, etc.

9.2: Cause of the disease

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis avian type.

9.3: Symptoms of the disease

  • Severe weakness.
  • No muscle in chest region.
  • Comb is yellow.
  • Increase in the size of liver.

9.4: Medication

  • Streptomycin.

(10). Spirokitosis or spirochaetosis

10.1: Introduction

(I). It is a high fever disease.
(II). Death rate is 90%.
(III). It is also known as tick fever.

10.2: Cause of the disease:

(I). Argas persicus.
(II). It is a type of tick.

10.3: Incubation period

  • It is 4-9 days.

10.4: Symptoms of the disease

  • Body temperature is 110°F-111°F.
  • No feeding.
  • Thirsty birds.
  • Lack of blood.
  • Sleepy birds.
  • Comb is yellow.
  • Swelling in legs.
  • Body temperature backs to normal 1-2 days before dying.

10.5: Medication

  • Penicillin.
  • Ampicillin.

(11). Navel disease

11.1: Introduction

(I). It is an infectious disease.
(II). It is disease of new born chicks.
(III). Death rate is 50%.

11.2: Cause of the disease

(I). E. coli.
(II). Staphylococcus aureus.

11.3: Symptoms of the disease

(I). Very weak chicks.
(II). Vigour less chicks.
(III). Swelling of the abdomen.

11.4: Medication

  • Terramycin.

Fowl cholera description and distribution

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