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Basics of Plum Cultivation


Plum Cultivation Practice

This page describes the basics of scientific cultivation practice of plum.

It is a fruit of temperate climate.

Introduction: Plum

European plum: Prunus domestica
Japanese plum: P. salicina,
Damson or France plum: P.inititia.
Family: Rosaceae
Chromosome no.: 2n = 48
Fruit type Drupe
Edible portion- Mesocarp & epicarp.
Origin – European plum – Europe (Caspian Sea)
Japanese plum – West Asia and South Eastern Europe.
American plum – North America.

Also read: Scientific Cultivation of Pineapple

It is one of the most important temperate fruit. Plum is used both as fresh as preserved form.

It ranks second in economic importance in stone fruits category

Species of plum

European plum: Prunus domstica
Japanies plum: Prunus salicina
American plum: Prunus Americana.
Plum was introduced in India in 1870 (Himachal Pradesh).

Climate

It can be grown from subtropical plain to the temperate hills.
Altitude: 1300-2000 mt (European Plum), 1000-1600 (Japanies plum)
European plum: they require 1000 to 1200 hour below 7 °c during
winter to break rest period.
Japanese’s plum: They require 700 – 1000 hours below 7 °C.
They are prone to frost injury.
Rainfall: 90-110 cm annual (Excessive Rainfall during fruit growth reduces
the quality).

Also read: Grape Cultivation: Varieties, propagation, and diseases

Soil

Deep fertile well drained loamy soil is best.
Soil pH: 5.5 to 6.5.

Propagation

Grafting and budding is commercially used for commercial multiplication.

Cultivation

Planting: square system
Planting distance: 6 X 6 m. (for all variety).
Pit size: 1 X 1 X 1 m.
Planting time: Dec-Jan.

Training

Done according to their growth habit and vigour.

Manure and fertilizer

It require adequate for better growth and quality fruits. The amount of FYM –
10 kg/plant/year, N: P: K 70: 35: 100 gm/plant/year.

Deficiency of Boron develops corky sports on fruits and result cracks.

Control: Spraying of 0.1 % Boric acid in June month is effective.
Growth regulaton
Foliar application of Ethophon (200 ppm) and carbonyl (100 ppm) at full
bloom is recommended for blossom thining.
Spraying of Ethophon 500 ppm about a week earlier than harvesting
improve fruit colour.
Application triacontanol after pit hardening stage improve fruit size.

Also read: Basics of Papaya Cultivation

Irrigation

It requires irrigation through out the year.
The pink water requirement of May-June (Quitical period), that consider
with the rapid fruit development period or stage.

Irrigation is applied at 50% field capacity in 20 days interval in (May) and 8-9 days in (June).

Varieties

Early variety: sweet early, santarosa, beauty, early red beauty, transparent
cage, titron, cloth of gold, early-subza, satlujpurple etc.
Mid season variety: starking delicious, elephant heart, frontier, zardulla,
Victoria, Kanto-5.
Kanto-5, Mariposa, red-ace, let yellow, grand duke, Silver wikson,
Golden gage are the important variety of plum.

Harvesting

It is a climatric fruit.
Peaking of immature fruits results in poor quality and off flavour and test.
A maturity index for commercial cultivar is T. S. S.
Variety TSS
Beauty (13 ± 2)
Santorosa ( 16 ± 2)
Frontier (14 ± 1)
Alubcekhara ( 12 ± 2)

Yield

69-70 kg fruits/kg

Harvesting time

In general (May to June).

Storage

They can be stored at 2-4 weeks at 00
C with 85-90 % R.H.
Deepening in 4 % calcium chloride solution for 2 minutes increases
storage capacity.


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