Main Article- Communication Process, Major Elements & Their Characteristics
JP Leagans Communication Model
What is Communication?
Communication, simply, is the exchange of words, gesture, feelings, thought and other things between the two or among the more person.. (people) or animals.
Meaning & Definition
The term communication stems from the latin word “communis” meaning common. Communication, then, is a conscious attempt to share information, ideas, attitudes and like with others.
In other words, it is the act of getting a sender and a receiver tuned together for a particular message or a series of messages.
According to J. Paul. Leagans, “Communication is a process by which two or more people exchange ideas, facts, feelings or impressions in such a way that each gains a common understanding of the meaning, intent or use of message.”
The communication model as given by J. P. Leagans is:
As shown in the diagram, there are six key elements of communication process:
4. Treatment of the message
6. Audience response.
This is the person who starts the process of communication in operation. He is the source of the message. A good communicator is characterized by following:
1. He should be perceived by the audience.
2. He must know his objectives, audience, message, channels and how to organize and treat his message.
3. He must prepare a plan for communication along with communication material and a plan for evaluation.
4. He must have skill in selecting, treating and expressing messages. He must also be able in selection and use of channels, understanding his audience and collecting the evidence of results.
5. He should have interest in his audience and its welfare and in his message and how it can help people.
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A message is the information a communicator wishes his audience to receive, understand, accept and act upon. A good messege should be:
- In line with the objectives to be obtained.
- Clear and understandable.
- Significant and specific.
- Accurate and timely.
- Appropriate to the channel selected.
- Appealing and attractive to the audience.
- Applicable by the audience.
Channels are the physical bridges between the sender and receiver. They are the extension methods through which messages are transmitted from its source to the users.
Many obstructions can enter the channels which prevent the message from being heard by or carried over clearly to the audience.
These are often referred to as the “noise”. The following are some of these:
First, failure of the channel to reach the intended audience.
Second, failure to select the channel appropriate to the objective.
Third, failure to use the channel in accordance with the abilities of the audience.
Fourth, failure to use enough channels in parallel.
Fifth, failure to avoid physical distraction.
Use o too many channels in a series.
Treatment of The Message
Treatment of the message has to do with the way a message is handled to get the information across to an audience. It is related to the technique or manner of performance in presenting the message.
The purpose of treatment is to make the message clear, understandable and realistic to the audience.
An audience is the intended receiver of the message. In good communication the audience aimed at is already identified by the communicator.
The more homogeneous the audience, the greater are the chances of successful communication.
Likewise, the more a communicator knows about his audience and can pinpoint it’s characteristics, the more likely he is to make an impact.
This is the terminating element in the communication process. The response of the audience is the ultimate objective, the goal of any communication function.
Extension communication is never complete without feedback information. Feedback means carrying some significant responses of the audience back to the communicator.
Communication work is not an end in itself. The communicator should know what has happened to the audience, after the message has reached them.
Adequate and correct feedback is essential for purposeful communication. Feedback information provides the communicator an opportunity to take corrective steps in communication work, helps in identifying subsequent activities and acts as a path-finder for need based research.
There are 4 ways:
1. Down Word Communication.
2. Upward Communication.
3. Lateral Communication.
4. Diagonal Communication.
Down Word Communication
This type of communication normally follows the organization’s chain of command from top to bottom. This include:
(i). Information related to policies, procedures, rules, objectives and plans.
(ii). Work assignments and directives.
(iii). Organization’s progress and status.
(iv). Requests and/or orders for information.
Down word communication may be written or oral.
Formal upward communications comprise messages that flow the lower to the higher levels in the hierarchy of an organization.
They normally take the form of progress or performance reports and requests for resources and typically be viewed as a feedback of data or information from lower level to upper management levels.
It is the diagonal exchange of messages across peers or co-workers, both within and across departments. Thus it is of two broad categories:
(i). Communication among peers within the same work group or department.
(ii). Communication that occurs between different departments on the se organizational level.
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Such communication includes that which cuts diagonally across an organization’s chain of command. Here a superior of one department may communicate with lower rank person of another department.
Successful communication involves following conditions and mastering these to perfection:
(a). Basics for Written Communication
Use easy to understand language.
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Use appropriate words, punctuations, paragraphs and signs.
Be courteous in your written communication, show that you are taking care about others.
Ensure clarity, accuracy and stimulate response Clarity.
Demonstrate empathy: Ability to understand other person’s feelings, experience and ability to understand farmers, children, officials.
Write specific what you mean to convey exactly; don’t use words which create dou le meaning.
(b). Basics for Verbal Communication
Maintain eye contact.
Don’t stare rudely while communicating.
Modulate your voice and voice level.
Check your pronunciations.
Be specific and move toward target timely.
Take care of specific words and statements.
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(c). Basics for Body language
Communication Through Gestures and Response
Gesture: Move your hands, head, face etc., as a way of expressing what to do you mean or what do you want.
Posture: The position in which you hold your body when standing or sitting.
Movement of body should be synchronized with verbal communication.
Fine tune your gesture, actions and words.
Avoid unwanted actions and irrelevant body language as these create negative impact.
Body Language: Expert communicator can actually judge other’s personality by observing body language. He marks confidence, aggression, nervousness, positive attitude, empathy, etc. All together, positive body language should be maintained while communication.
Problems in Communication
There are many problems in communication. They can be summarized under following heads:
A. Relating to Communicator.
B. Relating to the Transmission of Message.
C. Relating to Receiver.
Relating to Communicator
Ineffective Environment: The environment created by the communicator influences his effectiveness. The physical facilities, air of friendliness, rapport with audience etc., are important ingredients of climate conducive to effective communication.
Un-organize Efforts to Communicate: Unorganize efforts will distort the message and it will not reach its destination as intended.
Poor Standard of Correctness: Standard of correctness involves proper selection of the message and its level of accuracy. If they are not up to the mark, success will be hindered.
Inaccurate Symbols: If the symbols used in communication are inaccurate, intended communication will not take place.
Cultural Values Are Not Taken Into Consideration: Cultural values are determination of communication and hence communicator must have the knowledge of cultural values of his listeners for fruitful communication.
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Relating to Transmission of Message
Wrongful Handling of The Channels: If the channels selected for communication are not handled effectively, their potential for carrying a message will be dissipated.
Wrong Selection of Channels: If the selected is not in accordance with the objective/subject, interpretation will not be in desired way.
Physical Distraction: Failure to avoid physical distraction after obstructs successful sending of message.
Use of I adequate Channels in Parallel: For the message to have got through and received properly, use of more than one channel in parallel or at about the same time is essential.
Relating to Receiver
Poor Attention of The Listeners: Unfortunate tendency of the people is not to give undivided attention to the communicator. This is a powerful obstruction in the way of successful communication.
Problem of Homogeneity: The more homogeneous the audience is, the greater the chances for successful communication.
The listeners must cooperate and get actively involved in the communication process. They must try to get tuned together with the communicator.
Negative Attitude of The Audience.
Towards The Communicators: If the audience has negative attitude for the communicator or if the credibility of the communicator as perceived by the audience is low, no successful communication will teke place.