Crop regulation in guava
Guava: Common introduction
Crop regulation in guava
|Apple of Tropics
|Psidium guajava Linn
Guava (Psidium guajava Linn) is a tropical fruit crop. It can also be grown in sub-tropical conditions. It is very popular as ‘Apple of Tropics’. Guava is one of the most common and major fruit of India. It is the fifth most important fruit in India after mango, citrus, banana, and apple. It is hardy, prolific bearer and highly remunerative fruit. It has wide adaptability and higher return per unit area. Guava is a key component of a kitchen garden. You see it growing near the well and tubewell premises and on a commercial scale. But we face many problem in its cultivation.
What are the major problems in guava cultivation?
- Low quality fruits
- Loss of vigour
Insect-pest of guava: Fruit fly, guava shoot borer, guava mealy scale.
Diseases: Wilt and anthracnose.
Low quality fruits: The low quality fruits are related to crop regulation.
Factors affecting the quality of fruits: Insect-pests, diseases, season.
Guava bears two crops in a year. The winter crop is superior in quality than rainy season crop.
Why is crop regulation in guava necessary?
Guava is the rich source of Vitamin C, Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and minerals like calcium, phosphorus and iron. The Vitamin C content of guava is four to five times higher than the citrus fruits. The quality of winter season fruit is considered superior than rainy season fruit. The ripe fruit of Sardar guava (winter season) contains 13.29 per cent total soluble solids, 0.33 per cent acidity, 4.64 per cent reducing sugars, 7.87 per cent total sugars, 1.11 per cent starch, 200-300 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 1.15 per cent pectin. TSS-acid ratio of Allahabad Safeda is 42:1 and 39:1 in rainy season and winter season crop, respectively. In Lucknow-49, this ratio is 58:1 in rainy season crop and 40:1 in winter season crop.
Hence, In order to get only winter season crop which is superior than rainy season crop, the crop regulation in guava is necessary.
Why is the rainy season crop of inferior quality?
Rainy season guava gets infected with fruit flies. The attack of fruit fly is the cause of inferior quality of fruits.
Also read: What is Mrig Bahar in Guava?
What is the procedure of crop regulation in guava?
Follow these steps:
Step 01: Application of plant growth chemical
Spray urea 10 per cent or Napthalene acetic acid (NAA) @600 ppm during May when maximum flowers have opened. Each tree needs about 10-12 liters of solution.
Step 02: Pruning
Do pruning of terminal portions of the shoots up to 20 or 30 cm between 20 to 30 April. This practice will completely avoid the rainy season crop.
Step 03: Fertilization
Apply inorganic fertilizers during month of June to encourage growth in July-August for getting maximum flowering during August-September for winter season crop.
Step 04: Irrigation management
Stop irrigation during the summer month of April-May.
It is very necessary to have knowledge about flowering and fruiting in guava for crop regulation.
Flowering and fruiting in guava
Also read: What is Amber Bahar in Guava?
Guava tree normally produces as many as three crops in a year, a unique phenomenon of the tropical and sub-tropical regions because there is more than one growing season during the year. In a mild climate, guava can flower and bear throughout the year. But in regions where seasons are quite distinct due to variation in temperature or precipitation or both, specific periods to flowering and fruiting are observed. In northern India three distinct flowering seasons, i.e., summer, rainy and autumn with corresponding harvesting period are common. Here, rainy season crop is poor. In Punjab and most other parts of northern India, guava flowers first in April-May for rainy season crop and then in August-September for winter season crop.
In addition to the two flowering seasons the trees in western and southern India sometimes flower in October too. In West Bengal guava flower once in April-May and again in September-October.
The blooming period varies from 25-45 days depending upon the cultivar, season and region of growing. Due to severe fruit drop only 34 to 56 per cent of fruits reach maturity. The rainy season crop is harvested during August and winter season during January-February.
Fruits of Allahabad Safeda and Sardar guava take 130 days and 120 days is rainy season crop and 140 days and 130 days in winter season crop to attain the stage of harvest maturity, respectively.