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Food Colours: Natural and Artificial


Food Colours: Natural and Artificial Additives

Food colours are used in post harvest technology or in food processing industries to make the food more attractive. It is necessary to attract more consumers for more sales. According to the Food Product Order, 1955, we can use a set amount of food colours. For this purpose, we can use natural food colours or artificial food colours. These are food additives. It should not contain any type of harmful element. The maximum permissible amount is 0.2g per 1 kg of food.

Marigold xanthophyll extraction

Also read: Post Harvest Technology (PHT) MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

(A). Sources of natural food colours

Table 01:

S.No.TurmericScientific NamePigmentColour
1.TurmericCurcuma longaCurc_uminYellow
2.AnnattoBixa orellana1. Bixin
2. Norbixon
3. Carotinoid
Yellow-Orange
3.SaffronCrocus sativus1. Crocin 2. Crocertin Yellow-Orange
4.Beet rootBeta vulgarisBitaninViolet-Pink
5.CarrotDacus carotaBeta carotinYellow-Orange
Source: Indian food industry

Table 02:

S.No.TurmericScientific NamePigmentColour
1.TomatoSolanum Lycopersic_umLycopeneRed
2.MarigoldTagetes erectaLutinYellow-Orange
3.ChilliC. anum1. Capsanthin
2. Capsorubin
Orange-Red
4.Alfalfa grassMedicago sativa1. Chlorophyll
2. Chlorophyllin
Green
5.NettlesJatropha spp.1. Chlorophyll
2. Chlorophyllin
Green
Source: Indian food industry

Also read: Food Technology colleges in India

Table 03:

S.No.TurmericScientific NamePigmentColour
1.ParsleyAphanes spp.1. Chlorophyll
2. Chlorophyllin
Green
2.SpinachSpinacia oleracea1. Chlorophyll
2. Chlorophyllin
3.Black grapesVitis romanetieAnthocyaninRed-Blue
4.Black currantsRibis nigrumAnthocyaninRed-Blue
5.CherriesPrunus spp.AnthocyaninRed-Blue
Source: Indian food industry
S.No.TurmericScientific NamePigmentColour
1.ElderberriesSambuscus nigraAnthocyaninRed-Blue
2.Red cabbageBrassica oleraceaAnthocyaninRed-Blue
3.StrawberriesFragaria daltonnianaAnthocyaninRed-Blue
Source: Indian food industry

Also read: Xanthophyll is a naturally occurring colour pigment in marigold

(B): Source of artificial food colours

S.No.NameColourOther name(s)Colour Index NumberSeriesFormula
1.TatrazineYellow1. Hydrazine yellow
2. Tartar yellow
3. Acid yellow
4. FD and C yellow no. 5
5. Food yellow 4
6. Lobensmittel yellow no. 2
1. 1956 no. 19140
2. 1924 no. 640
PyrazonileC16H9N4O9S2Na3
2.Sunset yellowOrange1. Sunset yellow easy
2. Para orange
3. FD and C yellow no. 6
4. FC one food yellow
1956 no. 15985MonoazoC16H10N2O7S2Na2
3.AmaranthRed1. FC red no. 2
2. Acid crimson
3. Azorubine.
CI food red 9
1. 1956 no. 16185
2. 1924 no. 184
MonoazoC20H11N2O10S2Na3
4.ErthrosineRed1. Soluble primrose
2. Pyrosine B 3. FD and C red no. 3
4. CI food red 14
1. 1956 no. 45430
2. 1924 no. 773
XantheneC20H6O5I4Na2
5.Ponceau 4 RRed1. CI food red 7
2. Labensmittel rot no. 4
3. Coccinea nouvelle
4. Cochineal A
5. EEC serial no. E 124
1956-16255C20H11N2O10S3Na3
6.CarmoisineRed1. Azorubine
2. CI food red 3
3. EEC serial no. 122
1956 no. 14720MonoazoC20H12N2O7S2Na2
7.Indigo carmineBlue1. Indigotine
2. Saxony
3. FDC blue no. 2
4. C food blue 1
5. Blue no. 2
1. 1956 no. 73015
2. 1924 no. 1180
IndigoidC16H8N2O8S2Na3
8.Fast red ERed1. CI food red 4
2. Roung solide E
1956 no. 16045MonoazoC20H12N2O7ASNa2

Key phrases

  • Food colour examples.
  • Colour additives.

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