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Food Flavours, Additives, Colours and Spoilage


Food Flavours, Additives, Colours and Spoilage/Toxin

List of contents
01: Source of food flavours
02: Food additives
03: Food colours
04: Food spoilage or food toxin

Main topic: Post Harvest Technology

Also read: Post Harvest Technology (PHT) MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

01: Source of food flavours

List of food flavours: 1-10

S.No.Name of food flavoursSourceRemarks
01.Oxalic acidSpinach, carambola,
02.Chlorgenic acidIt is present in potato
03.ProgoitrinKale and turnipIt is a toxic substance
04.AcetaldehydeMangoAlphonso mango had more acetaldehyde
05.EugenolCloveEugenol is the flavouring compound present in clove
06.Methyl salicateGrapeMethyl salicate is the muscat flavour of grape
07.Methyl anthranilateGrapeIt is the fox flavour of grape
08.Butyl acetateRaspberry
09.Ethyl butyrateStrawberry and pineapple
10.CitralOrangeMainly present in orange in citrus group

List of food flavours: 11-20

S.No.Name of food flavoursSourceRemarks
11.Isopentyl acetateBanana
12.SerotoninBanana
13.BenzaldehydeAlmond
14.Benzoic acidCranberries
15. Thiopropanol S-oxideOnionIt is the Lachrymatory factor of onion
16.Allyl propyl disulphideOnionIt is the odour compound in onion
17.IsothiocyanateBrassicaIt is a toxic present in brassica
18.Di allyl disulphideGarlicIt is the odour compound in garlic
19.Terpenoids limonene, neral and geranialLemon
20.HesperidinOrange and lemon

List of food flavours: 21-29

S.No.Name of food flavoursSourceRemarks
21.SaltsIodide and bromideBitter in taste
22.SaltsLead and berylliumSweet in taste
23.Phosphoric acidIt is used in soft drink
24.Hydrogen ionResponsible for sourness of acid
25.NaringinGrape fruit
26.Glucoside of rutinoseGrape fruit
27.AmygdalinAlmond
28.Sugar of gentiobioseAlmond
29.CyanideAlmond

02: Food Additives

List of food additives: 1-10

S.No.GroupName of food additiveRemarks
1.AntioxidantsBHA, BHT, TBHO, PG, TDP, DLTDP, SC, SO2, Vitamin E and C
2.FumigantsMethyl bromide, Ethylene oxide, Ethyl formate
3.SequestrantsEDTA, Polyphosphate, Citric acid, Tartaric acid, Calcium chloride
4.Sweetener1. Glyceric acid: Licorice root
2. Neohesperidine: Citrus
5.EmulsifiersNatural origin: Lectin and Synthetic: Mono and diglycerides, bile acid and fatty acids
6.BuffersAcetic acid, ammonium carbonate, ammonium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, calcium chlorides, calcium citrate, citric acid, lactic acid, sodium acetate, soiudm bicarbonate, NaOH, H2SO4
7.StabilizersAgar-agar, Algenic acid, Starch, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose
8.Flavouring enhancersMSG, Ribonucleotides, pyroligneous acid
9.Anticaking agentsCalcium silicate, calcium stearate, sodium silicoCalcium silicate is used in bakery
10.HumuctantsPropylene glycole, glycerol, sorbitol, mannitol

List of food additives: 11-21

S.No.GroupName of food additiveRemarks
11.Bleaching agentsBenzyl peroxide, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, bromide,
12.Starch modifiersSodium hypochlorite
13.Firming agentsCalcium chloride, Aluminium sulphate
14.Clarifying agentsGelatin, Bentonine, Resins
15.Antisticking agentsHydrogenated s oil
16.SolventsAlcohol, Glycerene, Propylene glycol, Acetone, Hexane
17.Crystalization inhibitorsOxystearate
18.Leavening agentsAmmonium sulphate
19.Whipping agentsVegetable protien, Carbohydrated gum, mono gleceroids
20.Foaming agentsGlycerol mono stearate, CMC, Soy protein
21.Antifoaming agentsDimethyl poly silicones

03: Food Colours

Also read: Food Colours: Natural and Artificial

S.No.Name of food colourExplanation
1.CarotenoidsThese yellow colour pigment. Examples: Lutein, violo-xanthin, carotene, zeaxanthin.
2.BixinIt is present in annato
3.CapsanthinRed pepper is source of capsanthin
4.AnthoxanthinIt is a cream yellow-white colour pigment
5.FlavonoidsFlavonoids are present in potato, cauliflower and yellow skinned onion
6.BetalinsThese are red and yellow. Beet, cactus, pokeberry and bougainvillea are the source of betalins.
7.Chlorophyll A and BPresent in the ratio of 3:1 in fruits and vegetables
8.CarmoisineRed in colour
9.RutinCanned asparagus
10.Amount of dye0.2 g/kg of product

04: Food Toxin/Spoilage

  • Staphylococcal food poisoning: Most commonly occuring food born disease.
  • Botulism disease: Causal organism is Clostridium botulinum.
  • Food intoxication: Consumption of bacterial toxin present in food.
  • Food infection: Consumption of contaminated food.
  • A variety of fungi produce mycotoxins.
  • The cause of salmonellosis disease is food infection.
  • Natural toxins: Protease inhibitors and lathyrogens in pulses.
  • Prusic acid is present in almond.
  • Bacteria, yeast and moulds are responsible for microbial spoilage of fruits and vegetables.
  • Saccharomyces spoils low-sugar products.
  • Mostly, bacteria spoils non-acid foods.
  • Most of the micro-organisms require 13% of free water for their growth.
  • Use 65-70% sugar concentration inhibits the growth of mould.
  • Proteolytic organisms are responsible for protein degradation.

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