This page includes some important points of genetic engineering and answer key for MCQs. Name: Genetic engineering one liner solved questions.
Also read: Plant Breeding, Genetics, Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
Genetic Engineering One Liner
01: The four steps of an rDNA experiment
- First step is generating DNA fragments.
- Second step is cutting and joining the DNA fragments to vector DNA molecules.
- Third step is introducing the vectors carrying the foreign DNA into host cells.
- Fourth is selecting the clone of recipient cells.
02: A DNA molecule must be able to replicate within the host cell. Hence the numerous copies of the recombinant DNA molecule are produced. These copies are passed to the daughter cells.
03: The ideal size of a cloning vector should be less than 10 kb.
- Large molecules tend to break down during purification.
- These more difficult to manipulate.
05: There are two types of DNA molecule ideal for this work are as follows:
- Plasmids and bacteriophage chromosomes.
- Plasmids are circular molecules of DNA.
- Plasmids show an independent existence in the bacterial cell.
- Plasmids carry one or more genes.
07: Functions of nuclease enzymes are as follows
- Nucleases enzymes cut, shorten, or degrade nucleic acid molecules.
08: Nucleases enzymes
- Ligases join nucleic acid molecules.
- Polymerases make copies of molecules.
- Modifying enzymes remove or add chemical groups.
09: The insert size of plasmid should be less than 5 kb.
10: The insert size of phagemid should be less than 5 kb.
Recombinant DNA technology
11: Vector type and Kbp
- Bacteriophage λ-insertion vector 0-10 Kbp
- Bacteriophage λ- replacement vector 9-23 Kbp
- Cosmid30-45 kbp
- Bacterial artificial chromosome – BAC > 300 Kbp
- Bacteriophage P1 derived artificial chromosome -PAC
- ~ 100 KbpYeast artificial chromosome – YAC >2000 Kbp.
12: rDNA technology is also known as genetic engineering.
13: Types of gene transfer are as follows
- Direct gene transfer.
- Indirect gene transfer.
14: Types of direct gene transfer
- Particle bombardment or gene gun method or biolistic method or micro projectile.
- Polyethylene glycol mediated transformation. Known as PEG.
- Brief mechanism of biolistic method.
15: Particle bombardment or gene gun method is the effective direct gene transfer method in regular use.
Genetic engineering solved questions
16: Gene gun method is most suitable for cereal crops.
17: Plant cells without cell wall can be transformed with naked DNA by treatment with polyethylene glycol in the presence of divalent cations.
18: Electroporation can be used to deliver DNA into plant cells and protoplasts.
- Plasmid can be used as vector.
- No specific gene sequences are required for integration.
19: Microinjection is mostly used for animal cells.
20: Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall in grapes, walnuts, apples and roses. It is a soil borne gram negetive bacteria.
21: The crown gall formation depends on the presence of a plasmid in. This plasmid is known as Ti or tumor inducing plasmid.
22: Basic protocols
- Plant is removed from the donor plant for sterilization.
- Culture of Agrobacterium is prepared.
- Co-cultivation is followed.
- Removing and washing of explants in an antibiotic solution.
- Transferring explants to fresh solid medium.
- Selection of transformed explants.
- Transferring these explants to shoot and root regeneration medium.
- Confirmation of transformed plants were by PCR.
- Performing southern blotting for the presence of the foreign gene.
- And performing northern and western blotting for the expression of the foreign gene.
23: Werner Arber discovered restriction enzyme in 1968.
24: Polymerases help to synthesize.
25: Ligases help to bind.
Genetics and plant breeding
26: Paul Berg is the father of genetic engineering.
27: Plasmid and bacteriophage are the most common vector.
28: Host organism is the ultimate tool of rDNA technology.
29: Isolation of genetic material is the first step of rDNA technology.
30: Insertion of rDNA into host is the last step of rDNA technology.