Plant Breeding and Genetics: Important Terminologies
Read some important terminologies on genetics and plant breeding. Also read: Plant breeding and genetics multiple choice questions
Important terminology: Plant breeding
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It refers to adaption or adjustment of an introduced variety to the new environment.
1.2: A line
A line is the male sterile parent used in crossing to develop a new hybrid seed. It is known as male sterile line.
1.3: Allogamy or cross pollination
Pollen grain from flowers of one plant transferred to receptive sr stigma of flower of another plants.
2.1: B line
B line is the fertile counter parent of the A line. Is is also known as maintainer line.
Biodiversity refers to the total variability present within and among species of all living organisms and their habits.
Flowers opens, but only after the pollination has taken place. Example: Moong.
Flower does not open at all, ensuring complete self pollination. Examples: Wheat and other cereals.
3.3: Composite varieties
In cross pollinated crops, a variety developed by mixing the seed of various genotypes which are similar in maturity, height, seed size, seed colour, etc., or the mixture of genotypes from several sources that is maintained in bulk from one generation to the next. Examples: Vijay, amber, shakti, and protina varieties of maize.
3.4: Criss-cross inheritance
Inheritance of sex linked genes from grandfather to grandson through daughter.
It concerns with the study of various aspects of chromosomes and their effects on the development of characters of organisms.
Male and female reproductive structures are found on separate plants. Example: Papaya, date palm, pointed gourd.
4.2: Double cross hybrid
The hybrid progeny from a cross between two single crosses. Example: (A × B) × (C × D).
Electroporation is a technique which uses electric discharge to produce pores on cell membrane for intake of recombinant DNA.
When one gene affects in any way the expression of another gene, the phenomenon is called epistasis.
Eugenics is the application of principles of genetics for the environment of humankind.
Euphenics deals with the control of heredity diseases especially inborn errors of metabolism.
Pollen grains from flowers of one plant fall on the receptive stigmas of other flower of the same plant: Example: Moong.
6.2: Gene cloning
Gene cloning is isolating a gene and process of producing identical copies.
6.3: Gene frequency
Gene frequency is the proportion of one allele relative to all the alleles of a gene in Mendelian population.
6.4: Gene pool
Gene pool is the sum total of all the alleles present in the breeding members of a random mating population.
Genetics is the branch of biology concerned with the study of heredity and variation.
Genome is a complete set of chromosomes of a diploid species.
Genomics refers to the study of the structure and function of entire genome of an organism.
Also read: Plant Breeding Objective Questions
Important terminology: Genetics
Heterosis is the superiority of F1 in one or more character over its parents. It is also known as hybrid vigour.
When F1 is found superior to either parents.
Inbreeding is mating between closely related individuals such as selfing and sub mating.
8.2: Inbreeding depression
It is the loss or decrease in vigor and fitness as result of inbreeding.
8.3: In vitro
In vitro is a biochemical process taking place in a test tubes.
8.4: In vivo
In vivo is a biological process taking place in a living cell or organism.
Male and female reproductive structures are present on the same plant but in separate flowers. Example: Maize.
10.1: Pseudo heterosis
Superiority of F 1 over its parents in vegetative growth, but not in yield and adaption. It is also known as luxuriance.
11.1: R line
R line is an inbred line which when crossed with a male sterile strain, the resultant hybrid is a male fertile.
12.1: Self incompatibility or autogamy
Pollen grains from an anther fall on receptive stigma of the same flower.
12.2: Synthetic varieties
A variety which is developed by inter-mating in all possible combinations a number of inbred lines with good general combining ability and mixing the seed of F1 crosses in equal quantity. Its first example is maize.
13.1: Three way cross hybrid
The hybrid progeny between a single cross and an inbred. Example: (A × B) × C.
13.2: Top cross
A cross between an inbred line and an open pollinated variety. It is also known as inbred varieties cross.