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Grape Cultivation: Varieties, propagation, and diseases


Grape cultivation: Varieties, propagation, diseases and more

01: Grape cultivation

Botanical nameVistis vinifera michx.
FamilyVitaceae
OriginMediterian region (Between Black sea to Caspian Sea)
Chromosome number2n = 38
Fruit typeBerry
Edible portionpericarp and placentae

02: Distribution

  • Natural habitat is temperate climate.
  • It is mostly cultivated in peninsular India accounting 90 % of the total area.
  • It is believe to be older than rice or wheat crops.
  • Grape was introduced in India by the invaders from Iran and Afghanistan about 1300 AD.
  • Viticulture was first started in Egyt

Also read: Scientific Cultivation of Pineapple

03: Composition

Water70-80%
CHO15-25 % (Glucose: 8-13% and Fructose: 7-12%)
Organic acid0.1-0.3%.
Minerals and vitamins0.2-0.6%
Tartaric acid and malic acid constitute 90% of total acidity which citric acid is the 3rd most abundant acid in grapes (0.02 to 0.03 %).

04: Colour and flavor

  • Green colour in grape is due to pigment
  • Yellow pigment: Quercetin
  • Red, blue and black colour pigment: Anthocyanine
  • Flavour of grape is due to sugar, acid and Tannins.

05: Types of grape

According to use grape are as follows:

5.1: Table grapes

  • Used as a fresh fruit.
  • Main table varieties are, Thomson seedless, Pusa seedless, Anab-e-Shahi, Beauty seedless, Bangalore blue, delite and perlette.

5.2: Rasin grape

  • Grape that can be dried are included in this group.
  • Varieties containing more that 20% sugar are used for rasin making.
  • Both seed and seedless variety are used for making rasin.
  • Seeded rasin making: Munnaka
  • Rasin from seedless grape is known as kismis.
  • Important cultivars are, Thompson seedless, black corianth, Muscat of Alexandria, Pusa seedless, Sultana

5.3: Wine grape

  • Used for producing wine.
  • Grape with high acid and low sugar content are suitable for table wine.
  • Grape with high sugar content and low acid are used for desert wine/sweet wine.
  • Glucose and fructose in grape are converted in to alcohol and CO2 by the activity of enzyme produced by wine yeast (Saccharomyces crevisiae)
  • Important cultivar for wine grape are, White Riesling, Aligore, Chardonnay, Black champa , Matarao, Mission, and Ruby red.

5.4: Juice grape

  • Cultivar produce juices for beverage are known as juice grapes.
  • American cultivars are suitable for juice grape like concord.

06: Some important species of grapes

Vitis viniferaWine grape
Vitis labruscaFox grape
Vitis aestivalisSummer grape
Vitis ripariaFrost grape
Vitis lincecumiiPost oak grape
Vitis LongiiBush grape
Vitis rupestrisSand grape
Vitis monticolaSweet mountain grape
Vitis bezlandieriSpanish grape

07: Soil and climate

7.1: Soil

  • North India: Alluvial soil
  • M.H.: Heavy black clay soil.
  • Karnataka: Red loam soil.
  • Tamil Nadu: Light sandy soil.
  • Ideal soil for grape: Soil with good drainage and water holding capacity.
  • Soil pH- 6.5to 7.5.
  • Presence of excess salt mainly sodium and calcium (Na and Ca) are not good for grapes.
  • Electrical conductivity (EC) should be less than 4
  • Exchangeable Na is >25%

7.2: Climate

  • Hot and dry climate is ideal.
  • Area with humidity and high rainfall are not suitable.
  • Higher night temperature above 25 °C hamper colour development during ripening.
  • Pink pigmentation develops in green grapes if the difference between day and night temperature are more than 20 °C.
  • Temperature should not be more than 35 °C.
  • Under high humidity berries are not ripened properly and there is high incidence of disease.

Also read: Mango Plantation: Cultivation Practice and Orchard Management

08: Propagation

  • Grape is mostly propagated by hard wood stem cutting.
  • The diameter of the cutting should be 8-10 mm.
  • Cutting is generally done in the month of October.
  • For increasing the rooting of stem cutting it should be dipped in IBA solution 500 ppm for over night and 2000 ppm IBA for 10 second.
  • The rooting media should have 30-40% well decomposed manure.

8.1: Propagation Method

8.1.: Layering

Grape cultivar which is difficult to root on cuttings can be propagating by simple trench or mount layering.

8.1.2: Grafting and budding

  • Grafting and budding are also common in grape vine.
  • Bench grafting is widely used in grape.
  • Whip grafting is done in late winter or early spring season.

‘T’ budding and chip budding are also used.

09: Cultivation

9.1: Planting

  • The trench or pits should be 1 m wide and 75 cm deep.
  • Ideal time for planting for unrooted cutting directly in the field is October.
  • Planting time for rooted cutting is Jan-Feb.
  • Grafting or budding is done in July-August.

9.2: Spacing

  • Spacing varies according to variety, vigor of vines and system of training.
  • Spacing for Anab-e-sahi and Dilkhush is (3.3 m × 6.6 m) or (5 × 5 m).
  • Spacing for seedless variety is (1.2 to 2 m × 2.7 to 3.6 m)
  • For Thomson seedless: (1.8 × 2.5 m)

10: Varieties

Thomson seedless occupies more than 55% of the total area under grape cultivation.

Seedless variety

  • Beauty seedless
    • Introduced from California (USA).
    • It is ideal for Juice and wine.
  • Delite
    • Developed by Dr. H.P. Olmo, Haryana.
  • Perlette
    • A hybrid from California
    • T.S.S.: 18-20 %
  • Pusa seedless
    • It is a selection made at IARI.
  • Thomson seedless
    • It is originated from Asia Minor.
    • It was first grown by William Thomson (Scientist)
    • It is also known as Kismis or Saltana
    • It is a table and rasin cultivar.
    • T.S.S: 22-24 %, Juice % 69 %.

Coloured seedless variety

  • Beauty seedless
  • Sharad seedless.

White seedless variety

  • Parlette

Pusa seedless

  • Tas-a-ganesh.
  • Sonaka
  • Manikchaman
  • Pusa seedless, Tas-a-ganes, Sonaka, Manikchnad all the variety have parents.

Thomson seedless

  • Parents of Dilkhush variety.

Anab-e-sahi

  • Arka Kancahan: late maturing variety

Seeded cultivar

  • Anab-E-sahi
  • Bangalore Blue.
  • Black champa
  • Cardinal
  • Cheema sahibi
  • Gole
  • Gulabi
  • Dilkhus.

Area under different variety

  • Thomson seedless: 55%
  • Anab-E-Sahi: 15 %
  • Dilkhus: 15%
  • Sharad seedless: 5 %
  • Parlette: 5 %
  • Gulabi: 5%
  • Bhokri: 5%
  • Bangalore blue: 5%

Hybrid variety

  • Arkavati: Black Champa × Thomson seedless
  • Arka Neemani: BC × TS
  • Arka Krishna: BC × Queen of Vineyard (Juice)
  • Arka hans: BB × AS
  • Arkha shyam: BB × BC
  • Arka trishna: BB × convent large black (wine)
  • Arka Shweta: AS × TS.
  • Arka shweta: AS × TS.
  • Arka Majestic: AS × BC
  • Arka Chitra: Angoor Kalan × AS
  • Pusa Urvashi: Hur × BS (Tolerant to Anthracnose)

Variety and characteristics

Hybrids

Arkavati

Hybrid, seedless variety.
Good for raisin.

Arka neelmani

Good for red wine.

Arka Krishna

For juice

Arka hans

White wine

Arka shyam

Double cropping Arka trishna

For wine

Arka shweta, A. majestic, A. Chitra

God for table purpose

Pusa urvashi

Tolerant to anthracnose

Arka kanchan
Late maturing variety

T.S.S of Thomson seedless: 22-24 %, Juice: 69 %

Rasin

  • Dried seedless grape.
  • They should not have more than 17% moisture.
  • Pusa seedless, Thomson seedless,

11: Root stock

  • Dogridge: Resistant to nematode, salt and phylloxera, suitable for saline soil.
  • 1613: Resistant to nematode, phylloxera Salt creek: Resistant to nematode, salt

12: Growth regulator

  • CCC (Cycocil): for spraying vigour of vine and increase fruit fullness of bud.
  • GA3: for increasing berry size.
  • HCN: to reduce post harvest fruit drop.
  • MH (Malic hydrazyl): for induction of male sterility.
  • Thiourea: 4% mixed with 1% Bordex mixture are used for increasing bud break.

13: Training and pruning in grape

Different system of training.

  • Head system
  • Knifing sytem
  • Telephone system
  • ‘V’ shaped system
  • Exponded Y system
  • Bower system
  • Productive potential of vine is better in bower system.
  • In India bower system of training is most commonly adopted.
  • It is expensive.
  • Cost- benefit ratio- 1: 2.09.
  • It is not suitable for mechanization of cultural operation.
  • Head, knifing and telephone sytem-Produce low yield, Result sun burn of berries.
  • ‘V’ and ‘Y’ system -They are better in case of sunburn, Yield is low.

14: Pruning

In North India pruning is done during Dec-Jan.
In M.H, A.P and Karnataka pruning is done twice (April and Oct.)

15: Manure and fertilizer

  • Mg. deficiency occurs as a result of heavy dose of ‘K’.
  • Grape require more potassium and nitrogen
  • N is requiring for shoot growth during fruiting season.
  • K is requiring after bud differentiation for shoot maturity and for increasing the size of fruit bud.

16: Manure

Cattle manure: 25-50 tones /ha
Oil cake: 5 tones/ha
Organic mixture: 1200 kg/ha
For reducing Mg deficiency 100-200 kg Magnesium sulphate (MgSo4) /ha/ year are applied.

17: Irrigation

  • Grape is a shallow feeder crop.
  • Light and frequency of watering are suitable for grape.
  • High water requirement during berry dryer hot weather growth.
  • Least water requirement during fruit bud formation.
  • During ripening irrigation should be reduced of at least 1 month before harvesting to improve the quality and fasten the ripening.
  • Moisture stress during ripening increase berry drop.
  • Best method of irrigation is drip irrigation.
  • Economic life of grape is 7-8 years.

Quality of irrigation water

  • Electrical conductivity: < 1mm mos/cm.
  • Chloride content: 4 me/lit
  • SAR (Sodium absorption ratio): less than <8.
  • Residual sodium carbonate: less than < 1.25 me/lit.
  • Baron: less than < 1 mg/kg.

18: Harvesting

  • Harvest vine when fully riped
  • In seeded grapes seed become dark brown when they are fully ripe.
  • In seedless variety berry colour developed fully.
  • Grape should be harvested during cool time of day.
  • For local market grapes are packed in a bamboo strip basket.
  • For distant market wooden cardboard box are used.
  • Grape is packed in ventilated cardboard box using sulphur dioxide releasing pods which is known as “grape guard” in packing material to check the post harvest diseases, during transport and storage.
  • Storage is done at 0 to 10 °C temperature and 90-95 % RH in cold storage.

19: Yield

  • Yield potential of grape is highest in India.
  • Anab-e-sahi: 92 tones/ha.
  • Thomson seedless:48 tones/ha.
  • Average yield of seedless variety: 20 tones/ha.

20: Post harvest technology

  • Rasin are only processed product in India
  • Around 30 % of seedless grapes are dried to produce tones of rasin.
  • Golden Bleached Raisin are produce by shade drying.

21: Physiological disorder

Uneven ripening

  • Found in Bangalora blue
  • It occurs due to in adequate leaf area and non availability of reserves for developing bunch.
  • Control: cluster thining, gridling.
  • Use of growth regulator: Ethapon 250 ppm are sued.

Post harvest berry drop

  • Common in Anab-e-Shahi, and Cheema-Shahibi.
  • Control: NAA 50 ppm before harvesting.

Flower bud and flower drop

  • Common in north India.
  • Control: steam gridling, 10 days before full bloom.

Pink berry formation

  • Common in Thomson seedless, Tas-a -ganesh.
  • Pink colour turns red colour and berry become soft and watery.
  • Storage life reduce.
  • Control’ spray of 0.2% ascorbic acid and 0.25% sodium-diethyl-dithio carbonate at 15 days interval.

Scientific cultivation of grape


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