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Introduction to Insect-pests of Maize


Introduction to Insect-pests of Maize

Important points:

  • Maize is one of the staple food of Asian countries.
  • Other leading cereal crops are rice, wheat, sorghum, barley etc.
  • The crop is attacked by the numerous insect-pests.
  • The damage caused by the various species of insect-pests is significant.
  • Management of the insect-pests is very necessary.

Click here to see the introductory description of the insect-pests of rice.

Insect-pests of Maize Crop

List of insect-pests of maize

  • Maize borer.
  • European corn borer.
  • Asian maize borer.
  • Maize shoot fly.
  • Hairy caterpillar.

Also read: Entomology multiple choice questions

1. Maize Borer

Scientific name: Chilopartellus.

Family: Pyralidae.

Identification:

Larva: Caterpillar has four longitudinal stripes on the back and the body is greyish white.
Adult: Moths are yellowish-grey.

Life cycle:

  • 5 generations in a year.
  • Active breeding is seen during March – April to May.

Damage:

Young plant are destroyed by the pest. Larvae are active during night.
Look for dead heart symptoms.

Management:

Destroy crop residues.
Release Trichogramma chilonis.
Use 100 ml cypermethrin 10 EC for per ha.

Also read: Minor pests of rice

2. European Corn Borer

Doesn’t occur in India.

Scientific name: Ostrinianubilalis.

Family: Pyralidae.

Identification:

Larva: pale yellow body with black head.
Adult: Female moth has yellow to light brown wings.

Life cycle: 1 – 5 generation.

Damage:

  • Weaken plants.
  • Stunted cobs.
  • Tunnelling occurs.

Management:

Sow resistant varieties.
Deep ploughing and exposure to sunlight.

3. Asian Maize Borer

Scientific name: Ostrinia furnacalis.

Family: Pyralidae.

Life cycle: 1 – 5 generations.

Identification:

Larva: The upper side body is pinkish with a dark head.
Adult: The female moth is yellow to light brown in colour.

Damage:

Midrib tunnelling.
Reduce in plant growth.
Plants may collapse.

Management:

Follow the management practices of maize borer.

4. Maize Shoot Fly

Scientific name: Atherigonasoccata Rondani.

Family: Muscidae.

Identification:

Maggots: They are very tiny.
Fly: Fly has transparent wings.

Life cycle: Several generations occurs.

Damage:

High-yield hybrid varieties are more susceptible.
Maggot bores into the stem by feeding inside the main shoot.

Management:

Grow resistant varieties.
Seed coating with isofenphos 5G @ 30 g per 100g seed.
Use carbofuron 3G @ 12 kg per ha.

5. Hairy Caterpillars

Scientific name:

Amsacta moorei.
Spilosoma obliqua.

Family: Arctiidae.

5.1 RedHairy Caterpillar (Amsactamoorei)

Identification:

Larva: The body colour varies from reddish-amber to olive green with numerous long hair.
Adult: Moths are stoutly built and have white wings with black spots.

Life cycle: More than one generation in a year.

Damage: Larvae feed on growing points of the plants.

Management:

Use light traps.
Do summer ploughing.
Apply 25 EC quinalphos in 500 l water.

5.2 Bihar Hairy Caterpillar (Spilosomaobliqua)

Identification:

Larva: Long greyish hair.
Adult: Moth is full yellow.

Life cycle: 3 – 4 generations in a year.

Damage:

Larvae eat the soft portion of plants.
Severe attack: Completely denuded of leaves.

Management:

Use 25 kg malathion dust per ha.
Another control measures are same as red hairy caterpillar.

Maize


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