Major Virus Poultry Diseases and Management

Major poultry or avian diseases by virus

Poultry diseases are the diseases of avian which affect the different breeds of poultry, such as hen, duck, common quail, etc. Bacterial and viral diseases are the two major categories of avian diseases. In this post we, will know about the major poultry diseases caused by the virus.

What are the major poultry diseases caused by viruses?

(1). Ranikhet
(2). Fowl pox
(3). Infectious bronchitis
(4). Gumboro disease
(5). Mal absorption syndrome
(6). Marek’s disease

Also read: Bacterial poultry diseases, symptoms and management

(1). Ranikhet

1.1: What is ranikhet?

Ranikhet is the most dangerous viral disease of hens. It can cause 100% death in a farm. The origin place of ranikhet is Ranikhet in India.

Peak period: April to June.

1.2: What are the symptoms of ranikhet?

Symptoms are as follows:

  • High fever.
  • Respiration rate is high.
  • Symptom of cold in broilers.
  • Birds lose hunger.
  • Comb turns into dark colour or light yellow.
  • Beak is filled with saliva.
  • Birds generate wheezing sound.
  • Colour of diarrhoea is watery, green or yellow, lime-white, and it is very smelly.
  • Neck turns towards the backside.
  • Chicks twirl around a centre before dying.

1.3: How to treat ranikhet?

  • There is no effective control measure except timely vaccination.
  • Vaccination are: F-1 (through eyes), R2B or F-2 (subcutaneous).
  • Terramycin, phenovis, codrinal, aureomycin, etc., are supportive medicine.

Also read: Major diseases of poultry and their management

(2). Fowl pox

2.1: What is fowl pox?

It is a pimple/blister like worst disease. Symptom appears on comb, eyes, nose, skin of nose and head, etc. It also appears on featherless areas. Young chicks and egg laying hens are severely affected by this disease. Death rate is high in young chicks.

Peak period: April to July.

2.2: What are the symptoms of fowl pox?

  • Small pimples on comb, skin, nose, etc.
  • Nose is filled with yellow pus.
  • Sneezing.
  • Appearance of web-like structure at the corner of the beak, and under the mouth.
  • Running eyes.
  • Swelling of eyes.
  • Difficulty in feeding.

2.3: How to treat fowl pox?

  • There is no effective medicine.
  • You can use antibiotics.
  • Clean the wounds by using 2% of Solve nitrate.

2.3.1: Vaccination programme

(a). Fowl pox vaccine.

  • Age of vaccination is 6-8 weeks.
  • Do it before summer season.
  • It is applied through the skin.

(b). Pigeon pox vaccine

  • It is less effective than fowl pox vaccine.
  • Right age for vaccination is 6 weeks.
  • It takes 3 weeks to recover.
  • Once recovered, it never attacks the same bird.

Also read: Basic principles of poultry farming

(3). Infectious bronchitis

3.1: What is infectious bronchitis?

  • It is a cough disease.
  • Small birds are the most susceptible.

3.2: What are the symptoms of infectious bronchitis?

  • Chicks make rale sounds.
  • Symptom of gasping.
  • Running nose and eyes.
  • Swelling inside nose and eyes.
  • No further development.
  • Egg laying capacity decreases.

3.3: How to treat infectious bronchitis?

  • No medicine.
  • Use antibiotics.
  • Tetracycline, furasol, stancillin, etc., are some antibiotics.

(4). Gumboro disease

4.1: What is gumboro?

It is also known as I. B. D. or Infection Bursal Disease. Gumboro is one of the most infectious and lethal disease. Its origin place is Delaware, United States of America. It is severe during 2-9 weeks of age.

Cause: Virus is rated to Orbi virus of  the Rep virus family.

4.2: What are the symptoms of gumboro?

  • Diarrhoea.
  • Rough feathers.
  • Weak immunity system.

4.3: How to treat gumboro?

  • Use antibiotics.
  • Do vaccination.

Also read: How to get success in poultry farming?

(5). Mal absorption syndrome

5.1: What is mal absorption syndrome?

It is a disease which shows the symptoms of weak skeleton and hard feathers.

5.2: What are the major symptoms of MAS?

  • Dysentery like diarrhoea.
  • Breaking of bones.
  • Poor food conversion.
  • Death occurs in the second week.

5.3: What is the treatment of MAS?

  • There is no treatment.

Also read: Poultry farming multiple choice questions

(6). Marek’s disease

6.1: What is Marek’s disease?

  • It is disease of poultry which is related with lameness.

Cause: Herpes B-group of virus.

6.2: What are the major symptoms of Marek’s disease?

  • Neural form: Paralysis in leg.
  • Ocular form: Low eye vision.
  • Cutareous form: It affects skin.
  • Visceral form: Formation of small nodules inside the body.

6.3: What is the control measure of Marek’s disease?

Vaccinate the chicks with Marek’s vaccine.


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