Mango Plantation, Cultivation Practice and Orchard Management
(1). About mango
Mango is King of fruit. It is one oft most ancient fruit. It is the favorite fruit of India. Lakh bagh is one of the oldest and biggest mango orchard. In this post we will know about ‘Mango Plantation, Cultivation Practice, and Orchard Management‘.
|Scientific name||Mangifera indica|
|Wild mango||M. sylvatica|
|Chromosome number||2n = 40|
Also read: Best time for grafting in mango
Firstly, the mango spread in Eastern part. Mango is grown commercial scale in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Florida, Brazil, Hawaii, Mexico, Philippines, Myanmar, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Egypt, Thailand, West Indian Countries, Sudan, Malaysia.
India: All Indian states and territories except few.
Mango is rich source of nutritional and medicinal properties, although It is a major source of vitamin A and C. It is excellent for its flavor, taste and other qualities.
- Fruit as food and pickle.
- Root as fire wood.
- Leaf as green manure.
Post harvest products
Cultivated mango: Mangifera indica.
Wild mango: M. sylvatica.
- M. indica.
- M. sylvatica.
- M. coloneura.
- Mango is a Tropical and Sub-tropical fruit-plant.
- It is an evergreen tree.
- Only few species have edible fruit.
- M. indica bears edible fruits.
- M. indica has maximum number of varieties.
Main tree: A dome-shape big tree with a ovel canopy.
Leaves: Alternate leathery leaves.
Flower: Inflorescence is panicle. It is terminal. Inflorescence bears male and hermaphrodite flowers. Ratio is 1:4. 1:1, 2:1.
Fruit: Mango fruit is a drupe. The edible part is mesocarp.
Branches: A single tree trunk has multiple main and sub-branches.
Trunk: The mango tree trunk is a single big stem.
Flowering and Fruiting
Early flowering is a common instance in grafted plant. Remove the flower for first three years. Take commercial fruiting from 5th year.
- The time of flowering varies according to regions.
- Flowering in mango continues in two or three distinct flushes for a period of 6 to 8 weeks on different branches of tree.
- The chief internal factor that governs and controls the entire phenomenon of flowering in mango is the maturity and age of its seasonal vegetative growth, which are produced in distinct flushes at certain times of the year.
Flowering: November – January.
Pollination: Mode of pollination is cross pollination. House fly is the major pollinating agent in mango plant.
Fruiting: January – February.
- It is a tropical fruit crop.
- Temperature: Favorable temperature is 24 – 27 °C.
- Rain: Light shower is beneficial.
- Wind: Strong wind causes flower and fruit drop.
(3). Selection Site and Soil
Site: Open and Sunny.
Soil: Heavy soil.
Time: July – September.
Distance: 10.5 m for seedling mangoes and 9 m for grafted mangoes.
(6). Care of Young Orchard
- Protection against frost.
- Protection against host weather.
- Removal of early blossom.
- Training operations.
- Pruning operations.
- Top working of inferior trees.
- Rejuvenation of old mango tree.
- Irrigation management.
- Protection against insect-pests and various diseases.
Remove early blossom to make the young plants strong.
Pruning: Use pruning secateurs for effective pruning.
Top working: It is necessary for the rejuvenation of the old trees.
Irrigation: Install drip irrigation for better irrigation management.
Manures and fertilizers:
FYM (kg) per plant/tree
|S.N.||Tree age |
|4.||10 and above||100|
NPK (g) per plant/tree
Insects of mango
|S.N.||Name of insect||Damage||Control|
|1.||Mango mealy bug||Cause flower and fruit drop by sap sucking||Use sticky band.|
|2.||Mango hopper||Drying of inflorescence||Use carbaryl.|
|3.||Mango fruit fly||Post harvest rotting of fruits||1. Summer ploughing.|
2. Poison bait made from methyl eugenol.
|4.||Mango stem borer||Dying of young and old trees||Use kerosene in holes.|
|5.||Mango shoot borer||drying of young shoots||Use thiodan.|
|6.||Red ants||Make nets||Destroy the nets.|
Diseases of mango
|S.N.||Name of disease||Damage||Control|
|1.||Powdery mildew||Dropping of floral parts||Use 500 ml karathene.|
(Read full post)
|Leaves, twigs, fruits, inflorescence.||Bordeaux mixture 2:2:250.|
|3.||Bacterial canker||Damage of leaves and fruits||Use 2% agromycin.|
Disorders in mango
|1.||Alternate bearing||No flowering in succeeding year||Use regular bearer varieties.|
|2.||Mango malformation||No flower and fruit production||Use 100 g NAA.|
|3.||Fruit drop||Severe fruit drop||Use 20 PPM 2,4-D.|
|4.||Black tip||Tip of fruit is black||Don’t establish orchard near a brick kiln.|
|5.||Spongy tissue||Edible portion is spongy||Keep the orchard soil cool.|