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Mango Plantation: Cultivation Practice and Orchard Management


Mango Plantation, Cultivation Practice and Orchard Management

(1). About mango

Mango is King of fruit. It is one oft most ancient fruit. It is the favorite fruit of India. Lakh bagh is one of the oldest and biggest mango orchard. In this post we will know about ‘Mango Plantation, Cultivation Practice, and Orchard Management‘.

Common nameMango
Hindi nameआम
Scientific nameMangifera indica
Wild mangoM. sylvatica
FamilyAnacardiaceae
Chromosome number2n = 40
OriginIndo-Burma

Also read: Best time for grafting in mango

Distribution

Firstly, the mango spread in Eastern part. Mango is grown commercial scale in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Florida, Brazil, Hawaii, Mexico, Philippines, Myanmar, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Egypt, Thailand, West Indian Countries, Sudan, Malaysia.

India: All Indian states and territories except few.

Importance

Mango is rich source of nutritional and medicinal properties, although It is a major source of vitamin A and C. It is excellent for its flavor, taste and other qualities.

Usefulness:

  • Timber.
  • Fruit as food and pickle.
  • Root as fire wood.
  • Leaf as green manure.

Post harvest products

  • Juice.
  • Squash.
  • Nectar.
  • Syrup.
  • Jam.
  • Jelly.

Botany

Cultivated mango: Mangifera indica.
Wild mango: M. sylvatica.

Indian species

  • M. indica.
  • M. sylvatica.
  • M. coloneura.

Important points:

  • Mango is a Tropical and Sub-tropical fruit-plant.
  • It is an evergreen tree.
  • Only few species have edible fruit.
  • M. indica bears edible fruits.
  • M. indica has maximum number of varieties.

Main tree: A dome-shape big tree with a ovel canopy.

Leaves: Alternate leathery leaves.

Flower: Inflorescence is panicle. It is terminal. Inflorescence bears male and hermaphrodite flowers. Ratio is 1:4. 1:1, 2:1.

Fruit: Mango fruit is a drupe. The edible part is mesocarp.

Branches: A single tree trunk has multiple main and sub-branches.

Trunk: The mango tree trunk is a single big stem.

Also read: Cause of the Deterioration of Mango Graftage (Grafting)

Flowering and Fruiting

Early flowering is a common instance in grafted plant. Remove the flower for first three years. Take commercial fruiting from 5th year.

Important points:

  • The time of flowering varies according to regions.
  • Flowering in mango continues in two or three distinct flushes for a period of 6 to 8 weeks on different branches of tree.
  • The chief internal factor that governs and controls the entire phenomenon of flowering in mango is the maturity and age of its seasonal vegetative growth, which are produced in distinct flushes at certain times of the year.

Flowering: November – January.

Pollination: Mode of pollination is cross pollination. House fly is the major pollinating agent in mango plant.

Fruiting: January – February.

(2). Climate

(3). Selection Site and Soil

Site: Open and Sunny.
Soil: Heavy soil.

(4). Varieties

  • Langra.
  • Dusehari.
  • Chausa.
  • Mallika.
  • Banganpalli.
  • Amarpalli.

(5). Planting

Time: July – September.
Distance: 10.5 m for seedling mangoes and 9 m for grafted mangoes.

(6). Care of Young Orchard

  • Protection against frost.
  • Protection against host weather.
  • Removal of early blossom.
  • Training operations.
  • Pruning operations.
  • Top working of inferior trees.
  • Rejuvenation of old mango tree.
  • Irrigation management.
  • Manuring.
  • Protection against insect-pests and various diseases.

Remove early blossom to make the young plants strong.

Pruning: Use pruning secateurs for effective pruning.

Best grafting and pruning secateurs

Top working: It is necessary for the rejuvenation of the old trees.

Irrigation: Install drip irrigation for better irrigation management.

Manures and fertilizers:

FYM (kg) per plant/tree

S.N.Tree age
(In year)
FYM
1.1-35-20
2.4-625-50
3.7-960-90
4.10 and above100

NPK (g) per plant/tree

S.N.NPK
1.50-10040-80100-200
2.100-20080-100200-400
3.200-250120-160400-600
4.250160600

Insect-pests Management

Insects of mango

S.N.Name of insectDamageControl
1.Mango mealy bugCause flower and fruit drop by sap suckingUse sticky band.
2.Mango hopperDrying of inflorescenceUse carbaryl.
3.Mango fruit flyPost harvest rotting of fruits1. Summer ploughing.
2. Poison bait made from methyl eugenol.
4.Mango stem borerDying of young and old treesUse kerosene in holes.
5.Mango shoot borerdrying of young shootsUse thiodan.
6.Red antsMake netsDestroy the nets.

Diseases of mango

S.N.Name of diseaseDamageControl
1.Powdery mildewDropping of floral partsUse 500 ml karathene.
2.Anthracnose
(Read full post)
Leaves, twigs, fruits, inflorescence.Bordeaux mixture 2:2:250.
3.Bacterial cankerDamage of leaves and fruits Use 2% agromycin.

Disorders in mango

S.N.DisorderDescriptionControl
1.Alternate bearingNo flowering in succeeding yearUse regular bearer varieties.
2.Mango malformationNo flower and fruit productionUse 100 g NAA.
3.Fruit dropSevere fruit dropUse 20 PPM 2,4-D.
4.Black tipTip of fruit is blackDon’t establish orchard near a brick kiln.
5.Spongy tissueEdible portion is spongyKeep the orchard soil cool.

(7). Propagation

External link:

Wild mango



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