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Peach Cultivation in Hilly and Plains


Peach cultivation in healy and plain areas

Peach: Basic information

English namePeach
Hindi nameआडू (adoo or aadu)
Botanical namePrunus persica batsch
FamilyRosaceae
Origin placeChina
Chromosome numberX = 8, 2n =16
Type of fruitDrupe
Edible portionMesocarp and epicarp
It is a temperature fruit which is rich in protein, sugar, minerals and vitamins.

Also read: Basics of Plum Cultivation

This page describes about the basics of plum cultivation in hilly and plain (central) areas. Peach is a very important fruit-crop of temperate regions.

Climate

  • It requires humid climate with cold winter and dry summer.
  • Peach is sensitive to low temperature.
  • Buds are injured at 6.5 °C.
  • Application of Gibberellic acid 200 ppm delay blooming period.
  • Altitude 1000 to 2000 meter MSL.

Soil

Deep sandy loam soil with high organic matter having soil pH 5.8 to 6.8.

Cultivation

Planting: Best time for planting is winter season.

System of planting

  • For hilly areas: Contour planting
  • Plain area: Square planting.
  • Planting distance: 3 × 3 meter.

Training and pruning

Technique of pruning

  • It requires heavy regular pruning since fruiting occurs laterally only previous
  • seasons growth.
  • The important operation in pruning is thinning out and heading back of the shoots.
  • Pruning should be done in such way to produce 25 to 50 cm. growth annually
  • under temperate conditions.
  • It should be generally done in July for “ Elverta peach”
  • Best time of pruning is mid winter.

Method of training

Modified leader and open center are usually adopted.

Manures and fertilizers

It is very susceptible to Fe deficiency.
Control: application of ferrous sulphate (0.5 to 1 %) or soil application of 50 to
250 gm. (Fe- EDTA) 20 to 30 spots around the tree.

Weed control

Should be given as on when required.
Lack of irrigation during dry and hot summer results in fruit drops.

Method of irrigation and irrigation practices

  • Irrigation should be given during fruit development stage.
  • Check the irrigation few days before harvesting.
  • Drip irrigation is also useful for hilly areas.

Also read: Contingency irrigation

Variety

Some improved cultivars: Shan-e-Punjab, July: Elberta, red heaven,J.H.
hale, Florid sun, Florida reds and safeda.
Low chilling cultivars: Sharbati, Shaharanpur, Prabhat, Florida peach, Florida sun, Sun-e-Punjab.
Male sterile cultivars: J.H. Hale, June halbarta, Halbarta, July halbarata.
Nematodes resistant root stocks: Nemaguard, junnan.
Early varieties: Alton, world,s earliest, starked gold, quetta, red heaven
Mid season varieties: Allekzender, Kanto-5, Corwford early.
Late season varieties: J.h hale, Parrod-deluxe, pere-grine.

Note: Seeds are stratified at 4-10 °C for 10-12 weeks.
Application of pre sowing treatment: Thiourea (0.5 %) and GA (200 ppm)
reduce stratification period.
Spacing in nursery is 20 × 15 cm.

Method of propagation

  • Commercial method of propagation: The commercial method of propagation is tongue or cleft grafting.
  • Budding: T. budding or ring budding are best method.
  • Tongue grafting: Jan-Feb (hills)
  • T-budding: May-June (Hills)
  • For plain region: Tongue grafting is practiced from Nov-Jan.
  • T- Budding: April to June and September.

Also read: Propagation methods in fruit plants

Harvesting

  • Fruits are harvested in 3 to 4 pickings at 4 days interval.
  • Peak harvesting period is mid May to mid July.

It comes to bearing after two years of planting.
Economic bearing is 20 years.

Yield

  • Average yield ranges from 50 to 125 kg per plant in hilly areas.
  • Per ha. average yield is 7-10 tone

Ripening

  • Ripening process delays to half with each reduction of 5.6 °C from (4.1 to 4.4
  • °C).
  • Fruit ripening occura in 3 days at 21.1 °C and 15 .5 °C in six days.
  • Good flavor ripe fruits: When temperature is above 15 °C
  • Undesirable flavor fruits: When temperature is 10 °C.

Storage

  • It has a shorten storage life than other temperate fruits. Fruits can be stored at a
  • temperature of 0 to 3 °C with 85 to 90 % humidity for 2 to 4 weeks
  • In controlled
  • atmospheric condition, it can be stored up to 240 days at 5 % CO2 to 1 to 2 %
  • O2 at 0 °C.

Physiological disorder

Sun scaled

Cause: Direct hot sunlight
Control: Apply lime pest to facilitate shade.
Splitting of fruit: It occurs at pit hardening stage. Splitting may occur due to heavy rains after a prolonged dry spell.
Gum exude: From the cracking/splitting fruits and it is unfit for consumption.

Also read: Important things in epicotyl grafting in mango


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