Peach cultivation in healy and plain areas
Peach: Basic information
|Hindi name||आडू (adoo or aadu)|
|Botanical name||Prunus persica batsch|
|Chromosome number||X = 8, 2n =16|
|Type of fruit||Drupe|
|Edible portion||Mesocarp and epicarp|
Also read: Basics of Plum Cultivation
This page describes about the basics of plum cultivation in hilly and plain (central) areas. Peach is a very important fruit-crop of temperate regions.
- It requires humid climate with cold winter and dry summer.
- Peach is sensitive to low temperature.
- Buds are injured at 6.5 °C.
- Application of Gibberellic acid 200 ppm delay blooming period.
- Altitude 1000 to 2000 meter MSL.
Deep sandy loam soil with high organic matter having soil pH 5.8 to 6.8.
Planting: Best time for planting is winter season.
System of planting
- For hilly areas: Contour planting
- Plain area: Square planting.
- Planting distance: 3 × 3 meter.
Training and pruning
Technique of pruning
- It requires heavy regular pruning since fruiting occurs laterally only previous
- seasons growth.
- The important operation in pruning is thinning out and heading back of the shoots.
- Pruning should be done in such way to produce 25 to 50 cm. growth annually
- under temperate conditions.
- It should be generally done in July for “ Elverta peach”
- Best time of pruning is mid winter.
Method of training
Modified leader and open center are usually adopted.
Manures and fertilizers
It is very susceptible to Fe deficiency.
Control: application of ferrous sulphate (0.5 to 1 %) or soil application of 50 to
250 gm. (Fe- EDTA) 20 to 30 spots around the tree.
Should be given as on when required.
Lack of irrigation during dry and hot summer results in fruit drops.
Method of irrigation and irrigation practices
- Irrigation should be given during fruit development stage.
- Check the irrigation few days before harvesting.
- Drip irrigation is also useful for hilly areas.
Also read: Contingency irrigation
Some improved cultivars: Shan-e-Punjab, July: Elberta, red heaven,J.H.
hale, Florid sun, Florida reds and safeda.
Low chilling cultivars: Sharbati, Shaharanpur, Prabhat, Florida peach, Florida sun, Sun-e-Punjab.
Male sterile cultivars: J.H. Hale, June halbarta, Halbarta, July halbarata.
Nematodes resistant root stocks: Nemaguard, junnan.
Early varieties: Alton, world,s earliest, starked gold, quetta, red heaven
Mid season varieties: Allekzender, Kanto-5, Corwford early.
Late season varieties: J.h hale, Parrod-deluxe, pere-grine.
Note: Seeds are stratified at 4-10 °C for 10-12 weeks.
Application of pre sowing treatment: Thiourea (0.5 %) and GA (200 ppm)
reduce stratification period.
Spacing in nursery is 20 × 15 cm.
Method of propagation
- Commercial method of propagation: The commercial method of propagation is tongue or cleft grafting.
- Budding: T. budding or ring budding are best method.
- Tongue grafting: Jan-Feb (hills)
- T-budding: May-June (Hills)
- For plain region: Tongue grafting is practiced from Nov-Jan.
- T- Budding: April to June and September.
Also read: Propagation methods in fruit plants
- Fruits are harvested in 3 to 4 pickings at 4 days interval.
- Peak harvesting period is mid May to mid July.
It comes to bearing after two years of planting.
Economic bearing is 20 years.
- Average yield ranges from 50 to 125 kg per plant in hilly areas.
- Per ha. average yield is 7-10 tone
- Ripening process delays to half with each reduction of 5.6 °C from (4.1 to 4.4
- Fruit ripening occura in 3 days at 21.1 °C and 15 .5 °C in six days.
- Good flavor ripe fruits: When temperature is above 15 °C
- Undesirable flavor fruits: When temperature is 10 °C.
- It has a shorten storage life than other temperate fruits. Fruits can be stored at a
- temperature of 0 to 3 °C with 85 to 90 % humidity for 2 to 4 weeks
- In controlled
- atmospheric condition, it can be stored up to 240 days at 5 % CO2 to 1 to 2 %
- O2 at 0 °C.
Cause: Direct hot sunlight
Control: Apply lime pest to facilitate shade.
Splitting of fruit: It occurs at pit hardening stage. Splitting may occur due to heavy rains after a prolonged dry spell.
Gum exude: From the cracking/splitting fruits and it is unfit for consumption.