Botanical name Pyrus pyrifolia or pyrus serotina (Japanese pear)
Pyrus communis (European)
Origin Western Europe and Asia.
Chromosome number 2n =16.
Edible portion fleshy thalamus.
Fruit type Pome
It is second important crop after apple in terms of area and production under
temperature fruit crop.
Japanese pear: Pyrus pyrifolia
European pear/common pear: Pyrus communis.
Italy is largest produce of pear in the world.
Soil and climate
It can be grown at 1700-2400 MSL.
It can tolerate a low temperature of -26 °C under dormant condition.
Optimum hours of duration below 7 °C is necessary for completing their chilling requirement
For satisfactory flowering and fruiting it is 1200 hours.
A temperature of -3.38 °C kills the open blooms.
It requires 70-100 cm/year annual rainfall.
It is best grown in well drained fertile medium texture soil.
It is less tolerant to drought as compare to apple.
Ideal soil depth for proper root growth is 180 cm.
Plant that grows on deeper soil produce double yield as compare to plant grows
on shallow soil.
Ideal soil pH ranges from 6-7.5
Highly fertile soil having sufficient N content is not suitable because it
favours incidence of fire blight and psylla.
Seeds are extracted from fully mature fruits.
Seeds require stratification for proper germination.
Stratification can be done during October November at a temperature of 5-7 °C
Germinating seeds are sown in nursery with a spacing of 10-15 cm × 15 cm.
Dormant cuttings are taken during December.
Cuttings are treated with IBA (100 ppm) for 24 hours callusing. After callusing
they are planted in nursery.
Pear plants are commonly propagated by T Budding (April to Sept) and
Tongue grafting (December to January).
Root stock: Quince is the most common clonal root stock.
Suitable planting system: square system, rectangular system.
Planting system in hilly area: contour system.
In plain area suitable planting distance is 6-8 m.
Planting time is December to mid February (plain).
Training and pruning
Pear trees are trained according to modified central leader system.
The lowest branches are allowed to develop at a height of 60 cm from the ground
Pruning intensity in pear depends on the bearing habit of cultivars and vigorous.
Economic bearing period is 6-8 years.
In hilly areas: when the heavy snow fall is over, it is the best time for pruning.
Early pruning may results in severe cold injury.
Manures and fertilizers
Recommended dose of NPK is 70:35:70 g/tree/year
FYM: 6-10 kg/tree/year.
Zn and Fe (iron) deficiency occurs on young foliage and can be controlled by the application of
zinc sulphate and ferrous sulphate (0.4-0.5 %) during April.
Stalking is done in young plants after planting to keep them straight.
The trunk should be kept straight.
Kharif season: Green gram, toria, sunflower.
During Rabi: Pea, gram and Wheat.
Peach plant can also be planted as a filler crop in pear plantation.
Ratio between pollinizer cultivar with the main cultivar id 4:1 (4 main, 1 Pollinizer
Water requirement is 15 to 100 cm/year
Early season varieties: Early China, Laxton’s superb, Fertility seckel.
Mid season varieties: Bartlett, Satarking delicious, Sr. Jules Guyot.
Late season varieties: Conference, Winternellis, Flemish Beauty, Hardy, Clapps favorite.
Some other important variety are:
Red Blush, Punjab Gold, Punjab Nectar, William-bon-Christen, Thimpson, Nashpati.
Pollen sterile cultivar: Waite and Margness.
Asian type of pear: Kieffer, Gola,Le-Conte
European pear: Max-red, Barlett, Elderado.
For fresh consumption: fully mature stage.
For canning and distant market: firm and green stage.
Delayed packing reduces storage life.
30-35 tones /ha.
Suitable temperature for best desert quality is 15.6 to 21°C and R.H.: 80-85%.
After harvesting they are cooled at the temperature -0.62 to 1.6 °C.
Storage temp.: Minus 10 degree Celsius for 120-240 days with 85% R.H.
Pre mature ripening
It occurs near the blooms end which results brown hard and softening.
Night temperature, below 7.1°C and day temperature less than 21°C are
favourable for pre mature ripening.
Fruit cracking, calyx end rot and blossom blast
Fruit cracking, Calyx end rot and blossom blast like important physiological
disorders occur due to Boron deficiency.
Black end and corky tissue occurs due to calcium deficiency.
Pear shows vegetative parthenocarpy and produce seedless fruit.
Incompatibility in pear is gametophyte.
Commercial method of propagation is Tongue grafting.
Hard end: due to unfavorable water condition.
Pink end: due to abnormal cool season.
Fire blight is a bacterial disease which is caused by Erwinia amylovora.
Core breaks down and scald: it is a storage disorder.
Pear decline: it is a disease caused by MLO’s which is transmitted by Psylla.