Perennial and Kharif Season Fodder Crops For Cattle

Perennial Fodder Crops For Cattle

In previous post ‘Kharif Season Fodder Crops’ we knew about the fodder crops available in Kharif Season for cattle. And, in this post we will know about the general description, cultivation practice and the names of Perennial Fodder Crops For Cattle.

What are Perennial Fodder Crops?

The Perennial Fodder Crops are the forage crops grown in a particular season, and are available to feed the cattle in all seasons, and also they are perennial.

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Perennial Fodder Crops

List of Kharif Season Fodder Crops

  • Pusa Giant Napier
  • Para Grass
  • Deenanath Grass

These fodder crops are available in all  season as cattle feed:

Pusa Giant Napier

General Description

  • Common Name: Pusa Giant Napier.
  • Family: Poaceae.
  • Variety: Hybrid.
  • It is a type of grass.
  • The grass spreads very fast.
  • The Pusa Giant Napier Grass was developed by Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi.
  • It is a cross between barley and napier grass.
  • This grass is also known as GajRaaj Ghas.

Importance

  • The protien content in this grass spp. is vary high.
  • It is a very important invention toward the solution of scarcity of fodder.

Soil

It can be cultivated in all types of soil, although..

Don’t prefer > 1. Low lands. 2. Clay soil.

But, clay loam soil is most preferable.

Climate: It is not suitable for very cold areas.

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Manures and Fertilizers

  • FYM: Apply 200 – 300 quintal fym per hectare. It is an organic manure, and use it at the time of field preparation.
  • Super Phosphate: Apply 250 kg of super phosphate. Use it at the time of field preparation.
  • Ammonium Sulphate: You can use this inorganic chemical as top dressing. Quantity is 450kg/ha.

Also read: Production of vermicompost

Seed Rate

  • Propagation materials: Parts of roots and stems are the propagation materials.
  • The quantity of planting materials: 12 – 15 quintal of root cuttings are sufficient, and the same amount of stem cuttings are also sufficient.
  • Length of the cutting: The length of the cuttings is at least 30 cm.

Spacing: crop to crop distance is 45 cm, while the line to line distance is 90 cm.

Sowing Time

The best time for sowing of pusa giant napier grass is rainy season.

Irrigation

Irrigation schedule is important…

  • First Irrigation: Do first irrigation after planting the cuttings.
  • Summer Season Irrigation: Give irrigation at the intervals of 10 days.
  • Winter Season Irrigation: Give irrigation at the intervals of 15 days.
  • No need to irritate the crop in rainy season.

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Harvesting

  • First Harvesting: Do first irrigation 80 days after planting the cuttings.
  • Multiple Harvesting: You can do next harvesting at the intervals of 2 months.

Yield

2000 – 2500 quintal green forage per year.

Important Points

The protien content decreases once the crop reaches to maturity. So, don’t let it over grow.
Mix 5 kg of pulse fodder with this green fodder before fedding cattle.

Para Grass (4-5 years)

General Description

  • The para srass is a foreign species of grass.
  • Generally, it is grown in high rainfall areas.
  • It spreads in soil surface like creepers.
  • The grass texture is coarse.
  • By nature it is soft.

Main Characteristics

  • The knots of the grass produce many sproutings.
  • A single sprout is up to 180 cm long.
  • Sproutings are used as fodder.

Land and Soil

  • Useless land and soil: Such as banner lands, marsh lands, waterlogging condition etc.
  • Left lands: Borders of ponds, tunnels, canal etc are best places.

Manures and Fertilizers

  • Sewage water of cities: It is the best alternative of manure.
  • Sugarcane sheera: Use it to gain more production.
  • Ammonium sulphate: Use 1 quintal of ammonium sulphate per hectare after each harvesting. Apply it as the top dressing.

Seed Rate: 25 – 75 thousands stem cuttings per hectare is sufficient as planting material.

Sowing Time

  • Rainy season is the planting or sowing time.
  • Use can sow it during March to June, if the facility of irrigation is available.

Planting

  • Do at least 3 hoeing.
  • Make small water channels at 60 cm distance.
  • Plant the planting materials at the distance of 45 cm
  • Don’t make channels during rainy season.

Irrigation

Give irrigation immediately after planting.
Net irrigation: It depends on the water need of the crop.

Harvesting

  • The harvesting height of plant is 100 – 120 cm.
  • Do first harvesting 2 months after sowing.
  • Next harvesting: Skip the winter season, then do it once in each month.

Yield

Green fodder: 800-1000 quintal per hectare.
Yield with sewage water: Up to 2000 quintal per hectare.

Important Points

It is a nutritive green fodder.
Contains 8 – 10% protien.

Deenanath Grass

General Description

It is also an foreign species of grass.
Deenanath grass is very nutritious.
It gives greens green fodders up to many years, once sown.
Leaves are broad.
Leaves has stripes.
It is delicious.

Soil

It can be grown in all type of soils.
Sloppy lands are ideal for sowing.
Water logging condition is harmful.

Manures and Fertilizers

FYM: Apply 100 kg of fym per hectare at the time of field preparation.
Super phosphate + Ammonium sulphate.: Apply 100 kg of super phosphate and 100 kg of ammonium sulphate at the time of last ploughing.
After germination: Apply 100 kg of ammonium sulphate after 20-25 days of sowing as top dressing.

Seed Rate: 10 – 15 seed for one hectare is sufficient.

Sowing Time: On the onset of monsoon which is June-July.

Irrigation

It is resistant to water scarcity.
The crop requires only 1-3 irrigation.

Harvesting

First harvesting: Use can take first harvest 50-60 days after sowing.
Maximum 3 harvesting is done.

Yield

Green fodder: 400-500 quintal green fodder per hectare.
Seed production: To produce seed, leave the crop in field after first harvesting. Seed yield is 5-6 quintal per hectare.

Important Points

Protein: 7%.
Calcium: 4%.
Phosphorus: 36%.
It is ideal for hay making.
The fodder is subsistence.

Subabul

General Description

Subabul is a plant or tree.
It is a protien rich forage plant.

Soil: All kinds of soil are suitable.

Best Places: Borders of farm field.

Seed Rate

Grow up to 10 – 15 plants. For this, you would need at least 20 – 25 seeds.

Sowing Time

Monsoon.

Irrigation: It is a hardy in nature, and doesn’t require irrigation.

Harvesting

Leaves become ready to harvest after 1 – 1.5 years.
Regular harvesting is possible.
Alternative harvesting is the best option. For this, each day harvest the leaves from each new plant.

Azolla

General Description

It is an algae which is very rich in protein.

Media

It is grown in soilless media. A water tank or pond is best structure for the cultivation of azolla.

Common Name: Pusa Giant Napier.
Scientific Name:
Family: Poaceae.
Variety: Hybrid.

Manures and Fertilizers

50 – 60 q FYM/ha.
2 q Super Phosphate per ha.

Seed Rate: 25 kg/ha.

Sowing Time

February – March.
July.

Irrigation

4 – 5 irrigation in summer season crop.
No need for irrigation in rainy season.

Harvesting: It take 30 to 60 days to be harvested.

Yield: 200 – 300 q/ha.

Important Points

It contains 17 – 18% protein.
Prefer heavy rains.

Guar

General Description

It is also known as cluster bean.
Prefer light rains.
Mostly grown with sorghum and barley.

Soil: Sandy loam soil.

Manures and Fertilizers

250 kg Super Phosphate per ha. before last ploughing.

Seed Rate: 30 – 40 kg/ha.

Sowing Time: Last of March to mid of June.

Irrigation

Generally 3 – 4 irrigation for summer season crop.
No irrigation for rainy season crop.

Harvesting: Do it before flowering.

Yield: 250 – 400 q/ha.

Important Points

It contains 13 – 15% protein.

Barley

General Description

It is an important Kharif Season green fodder after sorghum. Family is poaceae.

Soil: Sandy and Sandy loam soils.

Manures and Fertilizers

Apply N, P, K @ of 40kg, 30kg, and 20 kg, respectively at the time of sowing.
Don’t use manure in non-irrigated areas.

Seed Rate: 12 – 15 kg/ha.

Sowing Time: April 15 – April 30.

Irrigation

Irrigation is giving until the commence of Monsoon.

Harvesting: 40 – 50 DAS.

Yield: 200 – 300 q/ha.

Important Points

It is useful in silage making.
Fodder is available from July to October.

Maize

Also read: Introduction to major insect-pests of maize

General Description

Maize is the best fodder crop.
It is available in May, June and July.

Soil: Loam and sandy loam.

Manures and Fertilizers

At the time of sowing:

N: 120 kg/ha.
P: 50 – 75 kg/ha.

Apply 2/3 of N and all the P at the time of sowing. And, use rest of N after one month of sowing.

Seed Rate: 35 – 40 kg/ha.

Sowing Time: April to June.

Irrigation

First Irrigation: At the time of sowing.
Second Irrigation: 15 day after the germination of seeds.
Then, give water as irrigation after each 10 days until the Monsoon.

Harvesting: 45 days after sowing.

Yield: 350 – 450 q/ha.

Important Points

It contains 9 – 10% protein.
Dry stem can be used to prepare vermicompost.

Fodder


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