Propagation methods in fruit plants

Propagation methods in fruit plants

There are many methods of propagation in fruit plants. Among them, grafting, budding, and layering are the most popular methods. We approach different techniques for each fruit plant.

(A). List of propagation methods in fruit plants:

(1). Division.
(2). Cutting.
(3). Layering.
(4). Budding.
(5). Grafting.

(1). Division

It is a method of propagation by which vegetative part that separate naturally from the parent plant, is used.

Types of division:

  • Rhizomes.
  • Suckers.
  • Offsets.
  • Crowns.
  • Runners.

1.1: Rhizomes

  • Rhizome is a fleshy underground stem.
  • Rhizomes have nodes and internodes bearing buds.
  • The rhizomes are cut into pieces, each with one or two viable bud.
  • Adventitious roots and shoots develop from the nodes.

1.2: Suckers

  • It is a shoot.
  • Suckers arises form an old stem.
  • This shoot produces adventitious roots, separately.

1.3: Offsets

  • Offsets are lateral shoots.
  • These shoots develop from the base of the main stem.

1.4: Crowns

  • It is a very short condensed part of plant at the surface of the ground.
  • The crown give rise to new shoot.

1.5: Runners

  • It is an specialized stem.
  • A runner develops from the axil of a leaf at the crown of a plant.

(2). Cutting

Types of cutting are as follows:

  • Hardwood cutting.
  • Semi hardwood cutting.
  • Softwood cutting.
  • Herbaceous cutting.
  • Leaf cutting.
  • Leaf bud cutting.
  • Root cutting.

Hardwood cutting, semi hardwood cutting, softwood cutting, and herbaceous cuttings are the types of stem cutting.

2.1: Hardwood cutting

  • Shoots are one year old.
  • Length of the cutting is 15-20 cm.
  • It should contain 3-5 buds.

2.2: Semi hardwood cutting

  • Shoots are slightly or partially mature.
  • Length of the cutting is 7.5 to 15 cm.
  • The basal cut is given just below the node.

2.3: Softwood cutting

  • It is the terminal portion of woody perennials.
  • The length of cutting is 7.5 to 12.5 cm.

2.4: Herbaceous cutting

  • Leaf cutting.
  • Leaf bud cutting.
  • Root cutting.

2.4.1: Leaf cutting

  • It is fleshy leaf.
  • Adventitious roots and adventitious shoot shoot form at the base of the leaf and develop into new plant.

2.4.2: Leaf bud cutting

  • It consists of a leaf blade.
  • High humidity is essential and bottom heat is desirable for rapid rooting.

2.4.3: Root cutting

  • Root cutting is taken from root of young stock plants.
  • The proximal end of the root piece should always be up.

(3). Layering

  • Ground layering.
  • Mound layering.
  • Air layering.
  • Tip layering.
  • Trench layering.
  • Serpentine layering.

3.1: Ground Layering

  • Remove a ring of bark about 2.5 cm in diameter.
  • In ground layering, a branch of plant is drawn to the soil.

3.2: Mound layering

  • Establish parent plants in nursery.
  • Cut down the plants to ground level when they are dormant during December to January.
  • Earthen up the stool to cover its 1/3 portion.
  • New shoots come out in spring.
  • Remove a ring of bark about 2.5 cm in diameter.
  • Separate the shoot after the emergence of roots.

3.3: Air layering

  • Select one year old shoot.
  • Remove a ring of bark about 2.5 cm in diameter.
  • Place moist sphagnum moss to cover it.
  • Wrap the polythene strip around it.
  • Water it frequently if necessary.
  • Detach it from mother plants after the emergence of adventitious roots.

3.4: Tip layering

  • Plants should have trailing type of shoots.
  • Burry the tip to a depth of about 7.5 cm.
  • The covered portion produces roots within 2 to 3 weeks.

3.4.1: Trench layering

  • The trench layering consists of growing a plant in a horizontal position in the base is a trench.
  • The plants are cut back to uniform height of 45-60 cm and left grown for one season.
  • Follow basic rules of layering.

3.4.2: Serpentine layering

  • It is essentially as simple layering except that the branch is alternatively covered and exposed along its length.
  • Branch should be long and flexible.

(4). Budding

  • T budding.
  • Inverted T budding.
  • Ring budding.
  • Chip budding.
  • Forkert.
  • I budding.
  • Flute budding.

4.1: T budding

  • Select tender stem or new shoot.
  • The best month is June.
  • Make a horizontal cut at 15 to 20 cm from ground level.
  • Give a 2 to 3 cm longitudinal cut toward downside starting from the middle of the horizontal cut.
  • Loosen the bark.
  • To remove the shield of bark containing the bud, give  a slicing cut at a point on the bud stick about 1.25 cm below the bud, continuing underneath about 2.5 cm above the bud.
  • Give a second horizontal cut 1.25 to 2 cm above the bud, thus permitting the removal of the shield piece.
  • Now insert the bud into rootstock.

Inverted T budding is just apposite to T budding.

4.2: Ring budding

  • Remove a cylindrical portion of bark about 1.5 cm in thickness.
  • Place the ring of bark containing bud into the cylindrical slot.
  • Tie it properly using a plastic tape.

Budding methods

Also read: Best grafting and budding tape

4.3: Chip budding

  • Use format rootstock and scion.
  • Give 2.5 to 2.8 cm long slanting cut on wood.
  • Give another cut at the lower end of first cut ate an angle of 45 °C.
  • Remove the chip of bark from the stock.
  • Remove the bud from the scion in the same way.
  • Insert it into rootstock.

4.4: Forkert budding

  • Give a transverse cut about 1.25 cm long on the rootstock.
  • Make two vertical cuts about 1.5 cm, one from each end.
  • Prepare the bud.
  • Inset it into rootstock.
  • Tie it with polythene tape.

4.5: I budding

  • Give two transverse cut on the bark of rootstock.
  • Give a vertical cut starting from the middle of the transverse cut.
  • Flip the bark.
  • Prepare the bud.
  • Insert it into the I cut.

4.6: Flute budding

It is just like ring budding except the difference that while removing the patch of bark encircling the rootstock, a narrow strip of bark is left on rootstock.

(5). Grafting

  • Toungue grafting
  • Cleft grafting
  • Inarching.
  • Side grafting.
  • Veneer grafting.
  • Epicotyl Grafting.
  • Mango stone or seed.
  • Bark grafting.

Also read: Best grafting and pruning secateurs

5.1: Toungue grafting

  • Give a long, smooth, slanting cut of about 4 to 5 cm on the rootstock.
  • Make another downward cut starting approximately 1/3 from the top about a cm in length.
  • Give similar cuts on scion.
  • Scion should have 2 to 3 buds.
  • Now graft the plant.

5.2: Cleft grafting

  • Rootstock is quite thicker than scion.
  • Split the rootstock using garden saw.
  • Split it in the middle down to about 4 cm.
  • Scion should have 3 to 4 buds.
  • Make slanting cuts one the both sides of scion.
  • Insert it into rootstock.

5.3: Inarching

  • Follow simple grafting technique.
  • Don’t detach the scion from mother plant

5.4: Side grafting

(Also read: Side grafting in mango)

  • Select one year old plant as rootstock.
  • Select 6 months old plant as scion.
  • Best time for grafting is the last week of June to the 3rd month of August.
  • Defoliate the leaves from scion that is 10 days before grafting.

5.5: Veneer grafting

(Also read: Veneer grafting mango, method and procedure)

  • Select one year old plant as rootstock.
  • Select 6 months old plant as scion.
  • Best time for grafting is the last week of June to the 3rd month of August.
  • Defoliate the leaves from scion that is 10 days before grafting.

5.6: Epicotyl grafting

(Also read: Stone or epicotyl grafting in mango)

  • Sow mango stone in soil + sand mixture.
  • Do it in the first or second week of June.
  • Select one month old seedling as rootstock.
  • Select 6 month old shoot as scion.

5.7: Bark grafting

  • Perform it in old trees.
  • Cut the bigger branches or main stem.
  • Loosen the bark.
  • Prepare 3 – 5 scions.
  • Insert scions between the bark and woody portion of the tree.
  • Wrap it tightly.
  • Use waxy materials to avoid any infection.

(B). Propagation in major fruit-plants

(1). Guava

1.1: Seed

May result in excessive variation.

Air layering, patch budding, inarching etc., are commercial methods of propagation in guava.

1.2: Clonal propagation of rootstock

  • For this, mound layering is used.
  • Establish parent plants in the nursery.
  • Perform heading back during rainy season.
  • Remove a ring of bark from the stool during rainy season.
  • Cover it with moist soil to encourage the growth of roots.

(2). Papaya

2.1: Seed

  • The only propagation method in papaya is seed.
  • Conventional methods of propagation such as grafting, budding, cutting, etc., are not useful.
  • Collect fresh seed because the papaya seeds lost their viability in about 45 days.
  • Size of seedbed is 2 × 1 × 15 cm.
  • Sow the seeds in the second week of July to third week of September.
  • Sow it in two or three lots of 15 days interval to regulate the plant sale.

(3). Banana

  • Suckers.
  • Peepers.
  • Rhizomes

3.1: Suckers

  • There are two types of suckers.
  • 1st is sword sucker.
  • 2nd is water sucker.

3.2: Sword suckers

  • Sword suckers have well developed base with narrow leaves.
  • Sword suckers are vigorous, produce bigger bunches.
  • The sword suckers height should be 80-120 cm.
  • Do heading back of tall suckers.
  • Weight should be 2kg.

3.3: Water suckers, peepers, and rhizomes

  • Water suckers have broad leaves but have unhealthy clumps.
  • Water suckers produce branches in more than 15 months.
  • Peepers are poor, and they produce in late.
  • Weight of rhizome should be 1.5 to 2 kg.
  • The shape of rhizome should be conical.
  • Rhizomes must have sound heartbud and sound buds.

(4). Pineapple

  • Shoot suckers.
  • Ground suck.
  • Ships.
  • Crown.
  • Stem bits.

(a). Weight of suckers should be 450g.
(b). Weight of slips is about 350.

(5). Sapota

  • Seed.
  • Inarching.
  • Air layering.
  • Soft wood grafting.

5.1: Inarching

  • It is commercial method.
  • Use khirni as rootstock.
  • February is the best time.

5.2: Air layering

  • Best time for layering is the beginning of rainy season.
  • Use 10,000 ppm NAA for best rooting.

5.3: Soft wood grafting

  • Use one year old plants.
  • Best time is July – August.

(6). Cashewnut

  • Budding.
  • Grafting.
  • Soft wood grafting.
  • Air layering.

6.1: Budding

  • Best time is May – June.
  • Use forkert or patch budding.

6.2: Grafting

  • Veneer grafting.
  • Side grafting.
  • Clift grafting.
  • Whip grafting.
  • Epicotyl grafting.
  • Soft wood grafting is best

6.3: Air layering

  • It is very common method.
  • Best time is February – April.

(7). Custard apple

  • Budding.
  • Stooling.
  • Cuttings.
  • Budding is commercial method.
  • Stooling is very promising for clonal method.
  • Stem cutting is successful with the application of 5000 ppm NAA.

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