Recent QuizQuiz on FungiAttempt this quiz now
More quizzes

Scientific Cultivation of Pineapple


Scientific cultivation of pineapple or Ananas comosus

The scientific cultivation of pineapple covers following topics:

  • Botanical description
  • Distribution
  • Soil and climatic requirements
  • Propagation
  • Choice of varieties
  • Planting
  • Irrigation
  • Insect-pests
  • Harvesting
  • Post harvest technology
  • Other important topics
Image source: Unsplash
Common namePineapple
Botanical nameAnanas comosus L.
FamilyBromeliaceae
Chromosome numberX = 25, 2n = 50, 75, 100
OriginBrazil
Introduced in India1548
Type of fruitSorosis
Edible portionBracts and Perianth
Good source ofVitamin A, B and C
EnzymeBromelin (it is digestive)
Composition1. Average sugar % in pineapple: 10-12 %
2. Acid content in pineapple: 0.6-0.8 %

Also read: Banana Cultivation One Liner

Distribution

It is cultivated in high rainfall and humid coastal region in peninsular India and hilly areas.

Also read: Grape Cultivation: Varieties, propagation, and diseases

Climate

  • Optimum temperature for cultivation: 22-32 °C.
  • Ideal temperature for the growth and development of leaves: 32 °C.
  • Best temperature for the growth and development of roots: 29 °C.
  • A difference of at least 4 °C between night and day temperatures is desirable.
  • It can be grown up to 11000 m above MSL.
  • Average annual rainfall for commercial cultivation is 100-150 cm or 1000-1500 mm.

Soil

• Sandy loam soil is ideal.
• Ideal soil pH ranges form 5-6.

Propagation

  • Propagation is done by suckers and slips.
  • Weight of slips should be 350 gm for higher yield and better produce.
  • Weight of suckers should be 450 gm.
  • For coorg honey dew, weight of suckers should be 50-750 gm and the weight of slips should be 300-400 gm.
  • For Assam: Same as Karnataka.
  • For Kerala: Weight of sucker should be 500-1000 gm.

Planting

  • Time of planting varies from place to place depending upon the onset of monsoon and intensity of rainfall.
  • Planting time in Assam: August to October.
  • Kerala and Karnataka: April to June.
  • Peak flowering period: Jan to March.
  • Planting for West Bengal : Oct to November. Peak flowering period is 12-15 month after planting.

Planting system

  • Flat bed and furrow, and for hilly areas: contour and trench methods.
  • Ideal plant density for subtropical condition: 63400 plant/ha.
  • For hot and humid condition: 5300 plant/ha.

Spacing

  • Plant × Plant: 25 cm
  • Row × Row: 60 cm
  • Trench to trench: 90 cm

Also read: Mango Plantation: Cultivation Practice and Orchard Management

Manure and fertilizer

  • Pineapple is a shallow feeder crop.
  • For Kew pineapple variety: 12 gm N/plant.
  • NPK dose for Assam region is 12:4:12 gm/plant /year.
  • Application of 4 gm P2O5 per plant in ratoon crop increases fruit weight and yield.

Interculture

Earthing up

  • It is done to provide anchorage to the plants.
  • It prevents lodging in heavy rainfall area.

Weed control

Application of Diuron (3 kg/ha) or combination of bromocil + Diuron @ 2kg/ha as pre emergence spray are effective.

Mulching

  • It is done for conserve soil moisture.
  • Mulching with black polythene and saw dust are good.

Removal of suckers and slips

  • A sucker grows with the emergence of inflorescence.
  • Slips grow with the developing fruits.
  • Increase number of slips delay fruit maturity.
  • Removal of suckers is known as denevalling.

Irrigation

  • Mostly grown under rainfed condition.
  • Supplementary irrigation produce good size fruits in area having optimum rain fall.
  • During hot weather irrigation are given in 20-25 days interval.

Use of growth regulators

  • For inducing flowering: NAA and NAA based compound (Planofix and celemone) at 10 -20 days interval.
  • Flowering in pineapple could also be induced by application of ethapon or ethereal (100 ppm).
  • Flower induction should be done when plant attains 35 to 40 functional leaves.
  • Application of NAA (200-300 ppm) 2- 3 month after fruit set increases 15- 20% fruit size.

Varieties

Kew

  • • Leading commercial variety.
  • Suitable for canning.
  • Fruit weight: 1.5-2.5 kg.
  • Giant kew is mostly cultivated in West Bengal.

Queen

  • Widely grown in Tripura
  • Fruit weight: 0.9-1.3 kg.

Mauritious

  • Mid season variety of queen group.
  • Suitable for table purposes.

Triploid variety

• Cayenne: Cultivated in Philippines
• Sugar leaf: Sweetest and best flavored fruit.

Early season varietyQueen
Mid season varietyMauritious
Late season varietyKew, Jaint Kew

Harvesting

  • Flowering time from the date of planting: 10-12 months.
  • Fruit mature period: 15-18 months.
  • Pineapple comes to harvest: May-August.
  • Fruit that mature in winter are acidic.
  • Slight clour change at the base of developing fruits is suitable for canning purpose.
  • Suitable harvesting stage for table purposes is Golden yellow colour stage.
  • Fruits with crown can be kept from 10-15 days after harvest without any damage.
  • Average fruit weight in 1st ratooning in HDP: 88 % and 79 % in the 2nd rationing.

Important points

  • Most of the pineapple cultivar are diploid.
  • Pineapple is a monocotyledonous, monocarpic, CAM plant and herbaceous plant.
  • It is a non-climatric fruit crop.
  • Serious pest of pineapple is mealy bug
  • Pseudococcus brevipes is transmitted through virus.

Multiple colours are important
physiological disorder occurs due to genetical or nutritional imbalance.

Heart rot, Phytopthora parasitica, is a fungal disease. It mostly occurs in alkaline.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.