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Scientific Way of Goat Farming


Scientific Goat Farming

What is goat farming?

It is the scientific way of nursing, raising, and rearing  the improved breeds of goat. There are many species of goat. Indigenous species are known for the taste of meat, while the foreign species are good for higher production of meat and milk.

Also read: Best animal husbandry book in Hindi

Contents: Scientific goat farming

(1). Why this business?
(2). Establishment of a goat farm
(3). Preparation of proper ration
(4). Breeds
(5). Management practices
(6). Major problems in goat farming
(7). Fodder management
(8). Why is it necessary to understand this business?
Also read: Veterinary officer, eligibility, Works and salary

(1). Why this business?

Because, it is:

  • Lucrative.
  • High income.
  • Less time.
  • High production.
  • Market demand.

1.1: Meat production

It the major purpose of this business. Due to the high market demand and high price, this business business model generates quick income within a very short duration.

1.2: Lucrative

It is a very lucrative farming business idea. What makes it lucrative is no or very little competiion. You can start it a very little investment by applying for government scheme. Example of such scheme is goat farming scheme.

1.3: High income

Income is high as compared to other agribusinesses.

See comparison:

S. N.ModuleAverage market price (per kg)Particular
1.This module600.00 to 1200.00 rs.No problem in marketing.
2.Broiler farming80.00 to 140.00 rs.Profit of margin is less.
3.Dairy farming of milk production40.00 to 80.00 rs.Problem in marketing in village areas.
4.Oyster mushroom150.00 to 200.00 rs.Major problem is marketing.
5.Paddy straw mushroom250.00 to 300.00 rs.Major problem is marketing.
*Note: Goat is sold according to its body weight

Also read: Backyard poultry farming scheme

1.4: Less time

Growth and result can be seen in very quick time. It takes up to 6 months.

1.5: High production

Production is high. A female goat may give birth to 1 – 3 baby goats at a time.

1.6: Market demand

Market demand is high, and it is evergreen. You will not encounter any problem in marketing.

(2). Establishment of a goat farm

  • Selection of land and site.
  • Lay out of farm.
  • Construction of shed.
  • Necessary structure.
  • Security measures.

2.1: Selection of land and soil

  • Select open site.
  • Land should be plain.
  • Soil should be fertile.
  • It should be far from residential area.

2.2: Layout of farm

  • Do fencing.
  • Farm should in squash shape.
  • Components of layout: Fodder crop, goat shade, farm pond, vegetable crops, vermisheds, etc.

2.3: Construction of shed

  • It should be fully and naturally ventilated.
  • Make water proof goat house.
  • The surface of the shed should be sloppy in one direction connecting with water outlet.

2.4: Necessary structures

  • Water tank.
  • Pond.
  • Animal’s shed.

2.5: Security measures

  • Live fencing during night around the shed.
  • Install CC tv.

Also read: Community fencing scheme department of horticulture

2.6: Basic principles

01: Feed the animals thrice if not sending them in any farm for grazing.
02: An average goat need 3.5 to 5 kg of animal feed.
03: Mix redgram, gram, pigeon pea, or legume fodder in animal feed.
04: An adult goat need 250g of ration for 50 kg of body weight.
05: Milky goat need 500g of ration for the production of 2.5 litre milk.
06: Increase the amount of ration (+2.50) during pregnancy.
07: Give 350g ration during common days, and 500g during breeding period.

(3). Preparation of proper ration

3.1: Ration 01

  • Wheat meal 1 part
  • Maize 2 parts
  • Linseed cake 1

3.2: Ration 02

  • Sorghum 1 part
  • Maize 2 parts
  • Straw of gram 2 parts
  • Sarso cake 2 parts

3.3: Ration 03

  • Wheat meal 1 part
  • Sorghum 2 parts
  • Groundnut cake 1 part

3.4: Method of application

  1. Mix all the components thoroughly.
  2. Mix 2% salt + 2% bone meal in each group.
  3. Take any one ration.
  4. Mix following @2% amount
  • Khadiya = 30g.
  • Salt = 23g.
  • Bone meal = 40g.
  • Sulfur = 5g.
  • Iron oxide = 2g.

Also read: Animal husbandry mcq multiple choice questions

(4). Breeds

Milky breeds:

  • Barbari.
  • Bari.
  • Sirohi.
  • Surati.
  • Mehsana.
  • Sanen.
  • Alpine.
  • Hybrid breeds.

Breed for meat:

Breeds for wool:

  • Pashmina.
  • Angora.

Cross breeds:

(5). Management practices

5.1: Registers

Preparation of daily register

S. N.Total farm yieldTotal visitorsTotal purchaseTotal sell

Birth register

S. N.Date of birthTime of birthPlace of birth


Weight register

S. N.Weight of kidsWeight of femalesWeight of males

5.2: Examination of animals

  • Temperature 39.5 °C.
  • Pulse rate 44-70 per minute
  • Respiration rate 11-18 per minute

5.3: Diseases

Major disease and their management:

  • Pneumonia.
  • Foot and mouth disease.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Bloat.
  • Cold.

5.3.1: Pneumonia

  • It is the most lethal disease of young goat.

Symptoms

  • Lazy kids.
  • No milk feeding.
  • Body temperature is 103 – 106°C.
  • Running nose.
  • Increase in respiration rate.
  • Coughing.
  • Diarrhoea in rare cases.

Cause

Major causes: Bacteria, virus, fungus, mycoplasma, etc.

Infection

  • Food contamination.
  • Wrong method of liquid medication.

Treatment

Proper dose of penicillin, tetracycline, antibiotics, etc.

5.3.2: Foot and mouth disease

It is a lethal disease.

Symptoms

  • Appearance of blisters on lips and foot of of goat.
  • Blisters turn into wounds.
  • Animals face during feeding.

Cause

  • Virus.
  • The virus belongs to the group picorna.
  • It has many subspecies.

Infection

  • Air droplets.
  • Water droplets.
  • Contaminated fodder.
  • Direct contact.
  • Farmer workers.

Treatment

  • Separate the infected animals.
  • Clean the mouth with water using 2% alum.
  • Use 20g of magnesium sulphate in case of fever.
  • Penicillin is also beneficial.
  • Follow vaccination programme.
  • For vaccination, contact assistant veterinary field officer.

5.3.3: Diarrhoea

  • Young goats are very susceptible.
  • They may die within few days.

Symptoms

  • First appearance: 2-3 days after the birth.
  • Weakness is the most common symptom.
  • Presence of rough hair coat.
  • Light of severe fever.
  • Day by day increase in weakness.
  • Poor eyes.
  • Bad smell due to watery dung.
  • The colour of dung is whitish
  • Later stage is pneumonia or sudden death.

Cause

  • Virus.
  • Bacteria.

Infection

  • Food contamination.
  • Bad management practices.

Treatment

  • Give treatment according to the cause of disease.

Diarrhoea due to protozoan: Albendazol.

Bacterial diarrhoea: Antibiotics.

5.3.4: Bloat

Symptoms

  • No chewing or ruminating.
  • Swelling starts in the left side belly.
  • The animal jerk its legs.
  • Abdomen pain is common.
  • Difficulty in respiration.
  • There is a solid sound while patting on animal’s abdomen.

Cause

  • Consumption of legume grains, fodder, or straw in more amount.
  • Feeding them silage or maize fodder in excessive amount.
  • Consumption of more amount of milk by kids during the winter season.
  • To feed concentrate mixture.
  • Consumption of cut maize is the major cause of bloat.

Infection

Improper feeding.

Treatment

  • Control the amount of legume grains, fodder, or straw in animal feed.
  • Reduce silage and maize fodder in animal feed.
  • Consumption of less amount of milk by kids during the winter season.
  • Don’t feed concentrate mixture.
  • Reduce the amount of cut maize is the major cause of bloat.

(6). Major problems in goat farming

  • Mortality.
  • Problem of fodder.

6.1: Kharif season

Availability of fodder during Kharif or rainy season in not a big problem. But, Kharif season is major cropping season. Due to the unavailability of non-cropped land fodder production is less. You have to grow it in your left piece of land. Although you can harvest some species of grasses to serve as green fodder. Hiring a shepherd is not the right solution.

Fodder management: Grow multiple kharif season fodder crop in farm.

6.2: Rabi season

No natural fodders are available.
Grow Rabi season fodder crops to avoid the scarcity of fodders.

6.3: Summer season

The availability of fodder crop during summer season is one of the biggest problem in goat farming. The main problem are as follows:

  • Unavailability of natural fodders.
  • Scarcity of irrigation water.
  • Low production.

(7). Fodder management

  • Kharif season.
  • Rabi season.
  • Perennial fodder crops.

Also read: Perennial and Kharif season fodder crops for cattle

7.1: Kharif season fodder crops

  • M. P. Chari.
  • Jwar.
  • Macchari.
  • Lobia.
  • Gwar.
  • Pearl millet.
  • Maize.

7.2: Rabi season fodder crops

  • Barseem.
  • Lucerne.
  • Oat.

Also read: Rabi season fodder crops

7.3: Perennial season fodder crops

  • Pusa giant napier.
  • Para grass.
  • Deenanath grass.

(8). Why is it necessary to understand this business?

Emotions

It is possible that you may develop emotions for goats over the time. And it may halt your progress in this business. Raising them as a plant, nursing them as a child, and then selling them by becoming a butcher is not easy.

What matters?

Good management practices.

Last update: 14-10-2021


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