A competitive ebook on soil Science
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Focus on important topics.
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Also read: Soil Science MCQ: Multiple Choice Questions
B. Sc. Agriculture, M. Sc. Agriculture, B. Sc. Horticulture, M. Sc. Horticulture, M. Sc. Soil Science, M. Sc. Agronomy.
Related competition examinations
Academic entrance examinations: State Agricultural Common Entrance Test (CET), BHU UET,
Government jobs competition examinations:
Preparation for SMS or Subject Matter Specialist (GK), Rural Agricultural Extension Officer (RAEO), Rural Horticultural Extension Officer (RHEO), IBPS Agricultural Field Officer,
Vyapam’s examinations, State Public Service Commission (SPSC), Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), other examinations.
List of topics
Types of rocks: Igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks, composition of earth-crust.
Classification of minerals: Primary and secondary minerals.
Quartz, feldspar, mica, olivine, tourmaline, source of plant nutrients,
Soil formation: Major factor, parent materials, weathering of rocks, soil forming processes; Eluviation, illuviation, gypsification, podzolisation, laterisation, gleization, solonization, pedoturbation. Development of mineral profile.
Regolith, regosol, sand, silt and clay. Textural classes, soil structure and its types, particle and bulk density. Hygroscopic, capillary, and gravitational water. Available water. Field capacity. Permanent wilting percentage, hygroscopic coefficient, moisture equivalent.
Classification of soils
Soils of India: Alluvial, laterite, red and yellow, black, desert, forest, mountain, and marine deposits. USDA soil classification: Soil orders; Alfisols, Aridisols, Gelisols, Inceptisols, Oxisols, Ultisols, Endisols, Entisols, Spodosols, Histosols, Mollisols.
Soil horizon, land capability classification,
Soil fertility and nutrient management
Introduction to soil fertility, natural and edaphic factors, soil productivity, plant nutrients, types of nutrients elements, classification of essential nutrients, primary and secondary nutrients, criteria e essentially of nutrients. Role of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.
Deficiency symptoms of primary and secondary nutrients: Deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, pottasium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur.
Functions and deficiency symptoms of iron, manganese, copper, boron, molybdenum, chloride, and zinc.
What is luxury consumption?
Consumption of nitrogen, phosphorus, pottasium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, and micro-elements.
N, P, and K transformation and availability.Ca, Mg, S, and micro-elements transformation and availability.
Problematic soils: Acid, calcareous, their causes and management. Saline, alkaline, their causes and management. Soil reclamation.
Form of elements absorbed by plants. Elements and its major role. Mobility of nutrients. Hidden hunger, deficiency symptoms, and toxicity symptoms.
Soil organic matter, humus, C:N ratio, pH, fertilizers and fertilizer management.
Soil structure: Introduction, grades of structure, consistency.
Bulk density: Factor affecting bulk density, porosity, and soil colour.
Soil temperature and aeration.
Soil water movement and its measurement.
Colloides, 1:1 type, 2:1 type, 2:2 type, cation exchange.
Types of pollutants.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural body. Pedology and edaphology are the two major branches. Pedology deals with the formation, such as weathering of rock, classification, morphology, chemistry of soil, and edaphology explains how soils deal or interact with living things, especially plants.
It is biologically active porous medium.
The uppermost layer is the result of the development of Earth’s crust.
Weathering is a very slow process which is influenced by biological, climatic, geologic, and topographic factors.
“Soil is a nutrient bin which provides all the nutrients required for plant growth”- Whitney (1892).
“Soil as a natural body composed of mineral and organic constituents, having a definite genesis and a distinct nature of its own”- Dokuchaiev (1900).
Dokuchaiev is Father of Soil Science.
See more and detailed description in ebook.
Multiple Choice Objective Questions
(See answer key in ebook)
Question 01. Which is true about the hydrolysis process?
(a). Increases in H-ion concentration resulting in the accelerated hydrolytic action of water.
(b). Decreases in H-ion concentration resulting in the accelerated hydrolytic action of water
(c). No change at all.
(d). None of the above.
Question 02. What will be the phosphorus content as P in plough layer of one hectare of soil containing 0.1% P2O5?
(a). 500 kg
(b). 860 kg.
(c). 740 kg.
(d). 1233 kg.
Question 03: Consider about the Munsell color system
- It can typically be represented quantitatively.
- Saturation is colorfulness of an area judged in proportion to its brightness.
- Value is colour intensity.
- The neutral values from 0 to 10.
- The chromas of purple-blue is at value 7
(a). Only 1, 2 and 4 are true.
(b). Only 2, 3 and 5 are true.
(c). Only 1, 4 and 5 are true.
(d). All are true.
Question 04. Which one is the permanent feature of soil?
(a). Soil texture.
(b). Soil structure.
(c). Both a and b.
(d). Soil composition.
Question 05. Which one is the active soil forming factor?
(a). Vegetation and topography.
(b). Time and topography.
(c). Time and vegetation.
(d). Vegetation and climate.
Question 06. Which group will you treat by using rock phosphate and press mud?
(a). Acid group.
(b). Saline group.
(c). Alkali group.
(d). All of the above.
Question 07. Where is the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute located?
Question 08. Which is true about the assumption of Stoke’s law?
(a). No smooth particles.
(b). No slipping between the liquid and the particles.
(c). The particles fall dependently.
(d). All of the above.
Question 09. In soil textural triangle?
(a). The lines angle upwards to the right mark percentages of sand.
(b). The lines angle upwards to the right mark percentages of silt.
(c). The lines angle upwards to the right mark percentages of rock.
(d). None of the above.
Question 10. When OM with wide C/N ratio (70:1) is added to the soil, the net effect is the disappearance of mineral N. What is the cause of the disappearance of mineral N?
(c). N transformation.
(d). N reduction.
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