Soils of India, Their Types and Characteristics

Soils of India

Soils of India having distinct Characteristics make India a diverse country in reference to availability of Soil-types. India is the 7th largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, US, China, Brazil and Australia. The different regions of India have different type of soils. For example black soils are dominant in Deccan region while the laterite soil is mostly found in South India.

In this post we are going to know about the soils of India through Q and A related with soils of India.


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References: Reference(s) will be given whenever applied.

Also read: Soil science mcq: Multiple choice questions


S. No.Contents
1.General Information
2.Questions and Answers

(1). General Information: Soils of India

Soils of India is a major topic under soil science in different courses. It is studied under the soil groups of India.

Commonly, this topic is included in the following courses/syllabus:

  • B. Sc. in agriculture (Semester classes).
  • M. Sc. in agriculture (Semester classes, major subject).
  • Geography of India (Subject/Topic).
  • Agricultural entrance exams (Syllabus).
  • VYAPAM exams (Topic of the syllabus).
  • Bank exams (Topic of the syllabus).
  • Other exams such as PSC (Topic of the major subject).

(2). Questions and Answers: Soils Of India

Question 01. How many soil deposits exist in India?

Answer: There are total six major soil deposits in India.

Question 02. Name the soil deposits in India?

Answer: The soil deposits of India are as follows:

  • Alluvial soil.
  • Black soil.
  • Red soil.
  • Laterite soil.
  • Desert soil.
  • Forest soil.

Question 03. Describe alluvial soil?


  • It is dominant in northern plains of India.
  • They have been deposited by major rivers such as Indus, Ganges and Bramh putra.
  • These are very fertile.
  • Rich in K and P elements, it is ideal for sugarcane and cereal crops.

Also read: Which is the most fertile soil?

Question 04. Describe black soil?


  • It is dominant in Deccan region.
  • These are made up of lava flows.
  • Also known as regur soil.
  • Poor in P contents but rich in Ca and K contents.
  • The soil is also known as black cotton soil.

Question 05. Describe red soil?


  • The parent material is igneous rock.
  • Red colour of the soil is due to diffusion of iron in crystalline.
  • It also appears in yellow colour depending on the physical condition.

Question 06. Describe laterite soil?


  • It is know as ‘murum’ in Indian state of Chhattisgarh (Citation needed).
  • It is dominant in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
  • Humus content of the soil is low.
  • Develops in high rainfall areas with high temperature.
  • It is ideal for crop like tea, coffee and cashew nut.

Question 07. Describe desert soil?


  • They are dominant in Indian state of Rajasthan.
  • The texture of the soil is sandy.
  • It is low fertile soil.
  • The soil is rich in salinity.
  • The soil also lacks humus contents.
  • The water holding capacity of the soil is very low.
  • It is ideal for local crop species.

Question 08. Describe forest soil?


  • These types of soils are found in mountain and hilly areas.
  • In Himalayas, the upper region soils are less fertile while the soil near northern plains are fertile.
  • These soils are acidic but lacks in humus contents.

Also read: MCQ on soil and water conservation

Question 09. What are the other soil deposits of India?

Answer: The other soil deposit of India is marine deposit.

  • These are dominant in the coastal regions of India particularly south-west coast.
  • The soils are rich in organic matters.

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