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Steps in Chilli Grafting


Basic steps in chilli grafting

In this tutorial, we will know about some basic steps and principles of chilli grafting.

General information

Scientific NameCapsicum anum
FamilySolanaceae
Methods of propagationSeeds, grafting, tissue culture

What are the importance of grafting?

  • Management of some known diseases such as wilt and damping off.
  • Reducing the problem of water stress.
  • Healthy crops.
List of contents
(01). Selection of rootstock
(02). Selection of scion
(03). Materials and method
(04). After care
(05). Important points

Also read: Growing Tomato, Brinjal and Chilli in Low Temperature

(01). Selection of rootstock

What is rootstock?

Rootstock is a plant which is used in plant propagation. In a grafted plant, lower portion, i.e., stem is rootstock and upper part, i.e., top growing shoot is scion. The family of rootstock and scion should be same. For example, we can’t graft guava on mango because it won’t survive. Here compatibility also matter. For example, a rootstock of brinjal is compatible with the scion of chilli but this is not compatible with rootstock of petunia.

Tree chilli is a best rootstock for grafting of chilli.

The selection of rootstock is one of the most important thing.

Selection criteria

  • Healthy rootstock.
  • Strong rootstock.
  • Resistant rootstock.

The overall appearance of a rootstock plant should be good looking. Strong stem, vigorous leaves and branches are the basic requirements.

What should be the required characteristics of a rootstock?

  • Duration of the plant.
  • Tolerant to insect-pests.
  • Resistant to insect-pests.
  • Tolerant to plant diseases.
  • Resistant to plant diseases.
Duration of the plantLife cycle of rootstock should be longer than hybrid varieties.
Tolerant to insect-pestsAt least it should be tolerant against the target insect-pests.
Resistant to insect-pestsAlways prefer this rootstock. Example: Tree chilli.
Tolerant to plant diseasesAt least it should be tolerant to plant diseases
Resistant to plant diseasesAlways prefer this rootstock
  • Vigorous: Physically, a rootstock should be very strong.
  • Longer life cycle: The life cycle of a rootstock should be longer than that hybrid variety.
  • Tolerant: It should be tolerant to insect-pests such as thrips.
  • Resistant: It should be resistant to lethal plant diseases such as wilt

Also read: Pot vegetable farming

What are the roles of a healthy and strong rootstock?

01: To support the plant against various plant diseases.
02: To support the plant against various insect-pests.
03: To support the plant for maximum production.
04: To support the plant for a longer production period.

(02). Selection of scion

Scion is a plant-part which is used in plant propagation. In a grafted plant, lower portion, i.e., stem is rootstock and upper part, i.e., top growing shoot is scion. The family of scion and rootstock should be same. For example, we can’t graft cashewnut on wood apple because it won’t survive. Here compatibility also matter. For example, a scion of hybrid chili is compatible with the roots of tree chili but this is not compatible with rootstock of Atropa belladonna.

(03). Method and materials

3.1: Required materials

  • Rootstock.
  • Scion.
  • Growing media.
  • Plant trays or poly bags.
  • Grafting tube, clip, tape.
  • A sharp blade.

Rootstock: A strong and vigorous rootstock
Scion: Compatible variety or species of chili such as Shimla mirch.
Growing media: Cocopeat for commercial varieties of chili and soil + FYM for rootstock
Plant trays and poly bags: Small poly bags of 5 × 4 inches.
Grafting clip, tube, and tape: Quality should be good. For example, prefer silicon clip

3.2: Method

Step 01: Sowing of seeds and germination

Seed treatment for good germination

  • Treatment 01 Soak the seeds in water for 24 hours before sowing.
  • Treatment 02 Soak the seeds in water + PGR solution for 24 hours.

Seed sowing should be done at morning.

  • Depth of sowing: Sowing depth is 0.5 to 1 cm.
  • Moisture content: The moisture content in growing media is 70%.

Step 02: Counting the day of grafting

  • 45 days after sowing of seeds.
  • Minimum diameter of a stem should be 1.5 mm in commercial grafting.

Step 03: Procedure to be followed

Silicon tube

  • Head back the rootstock just 4 mm below the cotyledon (cut should be slant).
  • Cut the scion-plant just 4 mm above the cotyledon (cut should match the cut made on rootstock).
  • Insert the silicon tube from the top side of the rootstock.
  • Slide down it halfway toward the rootstock.
  • Take your scion.
  • Insert it into the vacant part of the silicon tube to make a near perfect contact with rootstock.
  • Transfer your graftage inside a mist propagation chamber.

Spring clip

  • Head back the rootstock just 4 mm below the cotyledon.
  • Make a 5 mm vertical downward cut.
  • Take a scion plant.
  • Cut it just 4 mm above the cotyledon.
  • Make wedge shape cut on scion.
  • Insert the scion into rootstock.
  • Align the graftage.
  • Hold it by using grafting clip.
  • Transfer the graftage inside a mist propagation chamber.

Grafting tape (film)

  • Head back the rootstock just 4 mm below the cotyledon.
  • Make a 5 mm vertical downward cut.
  • Take a scion plant.
  • Cut it just 4 mm above the cotyledon.
  • Make wedge shape cut on scion.
  • Insert the scion into rootstock.
  • Align the graftage.
  • Hold it by using grafting clip.
  • Transfer the graftage inside a mist propagation chamber.

(04). After care

  • Protect the graftage from direct sunlight.
  • Protect the graftage from hot and fast wind.
  • Protect the graftage from rodents.
  • Protect the graftage from overhead irrigation.

Hardening of graftage

Keep your grafted plant inside a mist propagation chamber for at least 21 days.

Transplanting

Transplant the grafted plant after 21 days. You can transplant it inside a shade house or in an open field.

(05). Important points

  • Height of grafting: 1.5 to 2 cm from the ground level.
  • Length of scion: 2 to 3 cm.
  • Healing period: 1 to 3 weeks.

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