Stone (Epicotyl) Grafting in Mango

Contents

(1). Introduction: Stone or Epicotyl Grafting in Mango
(2). Steps in stone or epicotyl grafting
(3). Frequently asked questions

(1). Introduction: Stone or Epicotyl Grafting in Mango

What is stone or epicotyl grafting in mango?

The stone or epicotyl grafting is a method of plant propagation in mango. This method is commonly practiced bin mango.

In mango stone-plants, the seedling-stem above the cotyledon is epicotyl. This is the region where grafting operation is performed.

Meaning of epicotyl

The stone portion contains cotyledon, while the tender stem consists epicotyl region.

Also read: Mango Cultivation Practice

1.1 Which is the best month for stone grafting?

Mango stones loss their viability very soon. A stone may loss its viability within 2.5 – 3 months. Sometimes it is just within a month.

Mostly, all stones can be collected before the last date of June.

And the best time for sowing stone is the month of July.

1.2 Which is the best time for sowing the stone (mango seed) of mango?

Answer: The best time for sowing the stone of mango is June – July. Mango stones are sown in raised seedbed.

1.3 What should be the length, width and height of the seedbed?

Width: It should be 1 meter. The 1 meter width is fixed.

Length: Length may depends on requirement. Although, ideal length is 3 meter.

Height: The height of raised bed is 15-20 cm. Bricks are used for making the boundary of seedbed.

1.4 Which type of seed bed is ideal for sowing stones?

Two types of seedbed are:

1. Moist sand seedbed.
2. Soil seedbed.

Moist sand seedbed

Moist sand beds are ideal for the sowing of mango stone. 5-7 cm layers of leaf mould help in better germination.

Soil seedbed

Use garden soil and FYM for the preparation of soil seedbed. The ratio of garden soil and FYM should be 2:1.

(2). Steps in stone or epicotyl grafting

Procedure of stone grafting in mango.
Method of stone grafting in mango.

  • Collection of mango stones.
  • Sowing of mango stones.
  • Treatment after germination.
  • Carving rootstocks.
  • Selection of scion.
  • Carving scion.
  • Grafting rootstock and scion.
  • Planting the grafted plant.
  • Management of before sprouting.
  • And, management after sprouting.

2.1 Collection of mango stones

Mango stone are collected during June. Places to get mango stones are as follows:

Commercial mango orchards.
Public mango orchard.
Road side mango trees.
Sites of desi mango orchard.
Home garden.

Also read: Mango flower and fruit drop

2.2 Sowing of mango stones

Prepare the seed beds as described (2.3)
Sow the mango stones.
Irrigate the bed regularly, if there is no rain.
Generally, germination start from the first week of July.
Early germination is seen in the last week of June.

Also read: Water sprout in mango

2.3 Treatment after germination of seed-stones

Uproot the young mango plant.
Don’t sperate it from stone.
Leaves should be copper-clour.
Stem should be tender.

Properly wash the stone and root to remove soil.
Dip the stone and root in treatment solution for 5 minutes.
Use 0.1% carbendazim (bavistin) as treatment solution.
The treatment will minimize the chance of fungus attack.

Also read: Veneer grafting in mango

2.4 Preparation of rootstocks

Method 01.

Head back the tender stem from the top.
It should be 6 – 8 cm away from the stone.
Now, give a 4 cm longitudinal running down through the middle of the stem (Image ).

Side grafting in mango

Method 02.

Head back the tender stem from the top.
It should be 5 cm away from the stone.
Now, give a 4 cm slant cut on one side of the stem (Image ).

2.5 Selection of scion

Select the current season growth as scion.
It should 4 – 6 months old.
The length of scion should be 8 – 10 cm.
Scion should have plumpy buds.
It should be free from any type of disease and insect attack.

Time of grafting in mango

2.6 Preparation of scion

Method 01.

Give a slant cut  cut starting on one side of the lower part of scion stick so as to meet the cut on rootstock (Image ).

Use razor sharp knife.
Cut should be very clean.
Use carving blades for this operation (image ).

Method 02.

Give a wedge shaped cut starting on both sides of the lower part of scion stick (Image ).

Use razor sharp knife.
Cut should be very clean.
Use carving blades for this operation (image ).

2.7 Grafting rootstock and scion

Place (insert) the scion in the cleft of the seedling rootstock.
Align the scion with rootstock.
Now, tie it by using stretchable polythene (Image ).

2.8 Planting the grafted plant

Plant the grafted seedling in black polythene back. Use potting mixture, e.g., soil, FYM, and soil at the ratio of 1:1:1.

2.9 Management before sprouting

Keep the plants inside shade house.

2.10 And, management after sprouting

Monitoring for proper development.

Care

Shade

After grafting, plants are kept under shade to protect them from heavy rain, strong wind and direct sunlight.

Removal of sprouts

New sprouts on rootstock should be removed immediately. Don’t let them grow because it may become the  cause of the failure of grafting.

Mango deterioration

2.11 Transplanting in nursery

When scion produces four leaves, plants are transplanted in nursery bed.

(3). Frequently asked questions

3.1 How many days sprouts take place?

Answer: The scion starts sprouting 2 – 2.5 weeks after grafting.

3.2 How difficult is stone grafting?

Technically, stone grafting is very simple as compare to veneer and side grafting in mango.

3.3 What is the success rate of stone grafting?

Success rate of stone grafting is lower than the side grafting, secondly it is a less adopted method. Success rate is 70 – 75%.

3.4 How is it a cheap method of propagation in mango?

Difference among the various methods of grafting in mango

Veneer grafting: One year old plants are ideal for grafting. Hence, the management cost of seedling plants for one year is costly.

Side grafting: One year old plants are ideal for grafting. Hence, the management cost of seedling plants for one year is costly.

Epicotyl grafting: 15 days old seedlings are ideal for grafting. Grafted plants are ready for sell within a year.

Grafting

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