Xanthophyll in Marigold: M. Sc. Thesis
The present investigation entitled “Evaluation of marigold genotypes for flower and xanthophyll yield under agro-climatic condition Chhattisgarh of plains’’ was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.) during the year 2014-15.
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The investigation was undertaken to evaluate some indigenously available marigold genotypes for growth, flowering and yield under Chhattisgarh plains condition.
Therefore, depending on the diverse marigold genotypes available in the
different agro-climatic zones of Chhattisgarh, there is a scope of finding remarkable variations in the growth and flowering attributes which can be used for commercial exploitation.
Keeping these views in concern, the present investigation entitled “Evaluation of marigold genotypes for flower and xanthophyll yield under Agro-climatic condition of Chhattisgarh plains” was carried out with the following objectives:
(a). To find out the genotypes of marigold suitable for Chhattisgarh plain condition.
(b). To identify suitable marigold genotypes having higher growth, flowering attributes and yield.
(c). To identify marigold genotypes containing high amount of xanthophyll.
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|(1). Growth and flowering attributes|
|(2). Xanthophyll yield and its attributes|
|(5). Suggestions for future work|
(1). Growth and flowering attributes
Howe and Waters (1982) evaluated twenty two marigold (Tagetes spp.)
cultivars as bedding plants. Marigold cultivars Torch, Yellow Jacket, Spinwheel, Tiger Eyes, Gypsy Sun shine, Boy O’ Boy, Harvest Moon Improved, Yellow Boy
and Manie Flame performed well during early spring.
Kelly and Harbaugh (2002) evaluated eighty four cultivars of african
marigold (Tagetes erecta) and french marigold (T. patula). Cultivars viz., ‘Inca Gold’ and ‘Royal Gold’ (African marigold), ‘Disco Granada’ (French marigold) and Golden Boy’ and ‘Hero Gold’ (French dwarf-double gold class) were observed to perform well with similar heat and cold hardiness zones.
Verma et al. (2004) collected twelve genotyopes of T. patula and twenty
genotypes of T. erecta from Uttaranchal, India and evaluated for 9 character traits viz., plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf width, peduncle length, number of branches per plant, stem diameter, plant canopy and flower diameter. The tallest plants (208.01 cm) were observed in the genotype NIC-14859, while the shortest plant was observed in NIC-14839. The highest number of branches plant
(2). Xanthophyll yield and its attributes
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Asen et al. (1972) reported that the flower colour is usually due to two different types of pigments. One is the lipid soluble carotenoid and other is water soluble flavonoids present in the vacuoles of epidermal cells in true flowers.
Gregory et al. (1986) used high performance liquid chromatography to analyze the lutein esters in Marigold flowers (Tageres erecta).
Result showed that the lutein ester concentrations in fresh Marigold flowers varied from 4 pg per g in greenish yellow flowers to 800 pg per g in orange brown flowers.
El-saeid et al. (1996) recorded the maximum carotenoid content, volatile oil and biomass yield with the application of 238 kg N per ha. in Tagetus patula.
3.1 Location of experimental site
The experimental site was located at the Horticultural Research cum
Instructional Farm of the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh where adequate
facilities for irrigation and drainage existed.
3.2 Geographical situation
Raipur, the place of investigation, is situated in the central part of
Chhattisgarh at 21°16° N latitude, 81°36° E longitude and at an altitude of 286.56m from mean sea level.
3.3 Agro-climatic condition
Raipur is located in dry sub humid agro-climatic region. The annual rainfall of the region ranges from 1200-1325 mm, which is received from third week of June to first week of September and very little during October and February.
The pattern of rainfall, particularly during June to September months has great variation from year to year. The maximum temperature of this region may reach as high as 46 °C during summer and minimum may fall to 6 °C during winter.
The atmospheric humidity is high from June to October. Weekly average meteorological data during the span of experimentation June 2014 to December 2014 as recorded at Meteorological Observatory, IGKV, Raipur.
3.4 Soil characteristics of the experimental field
The soil of the experimental field was silt-loam. The soil samples (upto a depth of 20 cm) were collected randomly from five different places of the experimental site before layout of experiment. The samples were mixed thoroughly and a uniform sample was analyzed for assessing the physio-chemical propertiesof the soil.
The experiment consisted of 15 genotypes including one check variety of African marigold i.e., CGRG-1, CGRG-2, CGJS- 1, CGJS-2, CGJS-3, CGJS-4, CGMS-1, CGMS-2, CGRJ-1, CGRJ-2, CGSG-1, CGSG-2, CGDU-1, CGDU-2 and Pusa Narangi Gainda (Standard check). The experiment was conducted in
Randomized Block Design with three replications.
Five plants from each plot were tagged for observation. Observations were taken at 30, 60 and 90 DAT for vegetative growth parametres. Yield and yield attributing parameters were also recorded. Chemical analysis was done for estimation of xanthophyll and its yield attributes. The results of experiment
obtained during studies are summarized as follows:
The maximum plant height (33.32 cm) at 30 DAT, was recorded in the treatment T11 and was found to be at par with the treatments T14 and T6 (32.67 and 32.25 cm, respectively). At 60 DAT, the maximum plant height was recorded in T11 (78.42 cm) which however, was at par with T14 (76.37 cm), T2 (76.16 cm) and T3 (75.19 cm). At 90 DAT, maximum plant height was recorded in T3 (109.47 cm).
At 30, 60 DAT, the maximum plant spread was recorded in T11 (26.25 and 49.49 cm, respectively) which was significantly superior to standard check.
Treatment T11 recorded maximum number of primary branches per plant at 30, 60 and 90 DAT (4.43, 8.00 and 15.54, respectively), closely followed by T5(4.25, 7.38 and 13.95, respectively). Whereas, number of secondary branches per plant was maximum in T5 (42.81) at 90 DAT followed by T6 (38.29).
Among all the treatments, the 50 per cent flowering was significantly
earliest in the standard check variety Pusa Narangi Genda (63.23 days) followed by T8 (84.26 days) and T13 (88.96 days).
The maximum number of flowers per plant was recorded in the treatment T11 (80.88) followed by the treatment T3 (79.28). Whereas, standard check variety Pusa Narangi Genda recorded 60 flowers per plant.
The treatment T5 (6.58 cm) recorded maximum flower diameter followed
by T6 (6.38 cm), T11 (6.21 cm), T8 (5.57 cm) and T2 (5.47 cm) which however, was found to be at par with each other.
The treatment T6 recorded longest duration of flowering (94.36 days)
followed by T7, T14, T11 and T13 (93.29, 93.12, 92.33 and 90.50 days, respectively) all at par with each other.
Maximum flower weight plant-1
(330.86 g) was recorded in treatment T6, which was statistically equal with T11 (323.10 g) but significantly higher than all the other genotypes including standard check. Whereas, the treatment T6 recorded maximum flower dry weight (75.91g) having at par with T11 (73.94 gm).
The maximum flower yield per plot
(3.74 kg) was recorded in T11 followed by T6 (3.71 kg), T5 (3.27 kg) and T2 (3.25 kg) and the maximum flower yield (26.14 t ha-1) was recorded in T11 which was followed by T6 (25.87 t per ha) both
having at par values with respect to flower yield but significantly superior to all other treatments.
The standard check variety, Pusa Narangi Genda recorded maximum petal meal yield kg-1 of fresh flower (75.18 g) while the maximum petal meal yield per ha was recorded in the treatment T6 (1886.18 kg) followed by T11 (1876.59 kg).
Xanthophyll content per kg of petal meal was recorded maximum in the treatment T11 (26.18 g) followed by T15 (24.02 g) which was significantly superior to all other treatments. The maximum xanthophyll yield per ha. was recorded in T11 (49.12 kg per ha.) followed by T6 (38.23 kg per ha.).
At 30 and 60 DAT, the maximum plant height was recorded in T11 whereas, at 90 DAT, the treatment T3 recorded maximum plant height.
Plant spread was recorded maximum in the treatment T11 at 30, 60 and 90 DAT.
The number of primary and secondary branches per plant were found to be maximum in treatment T11.
Maximum number of flowers plant-1 was recorded the treatment T11
resulted in higher yield.
Treatment T5 had the maximum flower diameter.
Earliest days to 50 per cent flowering was noticed in standard check variety (Pusa Narangi Gainda). Whereas, the treatment T6 recorded longest duration of flowering and it can be grown for taking number of picking.
Maximum petal meal yield per kg of fresh flower was recorded in Pusa
Narangi Gainda. Wheres, petal meal yield per ha. was recorded maximum in T6.
Genotype T11 recorded hieghst xanthophyll content per kg of petal meal and xanthophyll yield per ha.
(5). Suggestions for future work
The result of present investigation are based on one year of experimentation, therefore, before reaching to any definite conclusions and recommendation, it needs to be repeated during successive years.
The same study can be carried out for different varieties of marigold.
Similar study can be conducted at different locations in Chhattisgarh and in other seasons on different soil type.
The effect of different chemicals on the total production of xanthophyll
content marigold could be studied.
Experiment on different locally available genotype should be conducted correlating it with weather parameters.